Apunte Inglés
Universidad Blanquerna (URL)
Grado Relaciones Internacionales - 1º curso
Asignatura Introducció a la ciència política
Año del apunte 2016
Páginas 4
Fecha de subida 29/04/2016
Descargas 2
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Vista previa del texto

Public diplomacy: it started in the Cold War. It i about reaching the audience of another country in order to make thy understand the situation in one's own country. EX: Russia TV,... This is easily achieved through learning languages - institut français, ...Most of the activity is online. it consists of trying to get to teh public through the internet, social media,.. in order to try and make the international audience have a good poinion of the country ( ex: propoaganda of st.Jordi in Catalunya, distributing a positive message of Catalunya).
New comunication technologies have transformed many areas, ex: marketingg. Great effect on media ad journalism and on public engagement and political change.
CONTEXT: - The first time that media and political science of how things have changed (media, democracy,...) - Ex: First Obama presidency; he defeated McGee. Obama voters had done more online propaganda ( pictures, messages in social medias,... ) and active supporting of obama's presidency than McGee supporters did. Percentage of Obama: 55%, percentage of McGee: 53%. the difference is not that big. Obama managed to make a bigger imact online, but this didn't make that big of a change.
DIFFERENT WAYS IN WHICH THE INTERNET MAY AFFECT PEOPLE IN A DEMOCRATIC CONTEXT: - Intersections between national and international media: people think that Osbama's victory was due to social media, but it really didn't make that big of a difference.
Technological determinism: Transform society in a positive way; when citizens participate online, the make a positive change. It implies that tech affects ppositively on society.
Social shaking of tech: it understand things all the way arround. tech by itself is not positive or negative, but it depends on how it is used.
- It is commonly understood that 2011 menifestations were due to the internet. This enhances the capacity of the citizen to fight against a corrupt or dictatorial government or other perjudicial organisms that affect society negatively and that need to be changed.
improoving the capacity of cintizens to do demonstrations, to vote a certainparty or to mobilize a certain way, to directly affect policy.
- The other side of the coin: Even though the internet is very powerful in spreading a message, said message could not be that positive but rather negative; EX: ISIS propaganda through blogs, internet, social media,... In the same way that more positive campaigns are trying to spread their message.
- The internet is a free place, so the message spreading is unstoppable. but there aree some exepcions; in China the access to Internet is very difficult. China is a dictatorship, and they have managed to block the country form the outside. they are able to control the info that their citizenss reccieve. This called the Great Wall of China. This is done for: 1) Blocking western media.
2) Blocking social media For two main reasons: 1) To stop citizen contact with the western culturee and way of thinking. The government blocks news sthat can be controversial for the chinese citizens.
2)Marketing. They have their won intern facebook, twitterr, etc. China's social network is completely controlled by the government ( including the control of commenting on walls, ...).
So we can conclude form this that the internet is not such a free place as we think.
- Ex: Arab Spring. Tunise - best eample of upraisnings that have changed things. Twitter revolutions, social media revolutions,... The majority of society in Middle East countries do not have acces to the internet ( therefore no access to social media or media, news,...).
This is due to the fact that if the acces to it would mean that they would bea ble to make a revolution more easily through social media, as it has greatly reached the international media networks and international public, so the message has reached the western country and our concern. EX: one of the sources to cover the Arab Spring in Tunisia form BCN was Twitter.
- Penetration rates of internet and social media is relatively solw... The 0'26% of population that can access it could hardly make a revolution.
- When a new communication technology appears in society it is predicted the death of the former one. So there is a prediction of the death of newspapers, nevertheless, they still endure, for they have addapted to the current times. former media transforms itself addapting to the new communication technology. The change of stech has also changed the areas covered by media, for some actually offer access to radio, TV, images,other sources,... This also changes the media ( specially newspapers).
INTERNET EFFECTS ON MEDIA: HYBRID MEDIA SYSTEM: - The hybrid media system has changed the rules of the game.
1) Coexistence between old media and new 2) Primarily national but attentive to the global public sphere.
- Nowadays new and old media coexist in the same media system. Radio,, newspapers, news,... Only the dinamics have been changed and addapted.
- They can now reach the audience using teh new tools that the new media provides.
Different medias : old and neww. Their interactions have changed how media is currently working.
- In a political campaign, the teams working for the party direct to the different bases of journalists that are covering their campaign, so they tackle and include what is most important and interesting to include in the puclic Agenda, thorugh the use traditional and new media to fulfill this objective; to reach the audience.
THE RULESS OF THE GAME: - Beforee, the way to do this was to contact a journalist - this has changed.
The gatekeeper thory : Now, there are gatekeepers (journalists do this just like a guard in a nighclub would), based on rational decisions and on the audinece they are directed to.
The journalists have the power to select what a person is or is not going to read, they decide what it's important.
- Everything that happens in the public sphere is filtred, and whio does this is the direector or editor, the ones that have real power.
- Tradditionally, to reach an audince, a message or a story needed to be publiched by a news media - This means, to be filtered by the newsroom and professional journalists.
- This theory does not always work because there is government influence.
- Citizen trust is needed for journalists, since if this does not happen, the filtration has no point, and the filtration is not achieving its objective (they will not be needed).
- Citizens show a lack of interest in being news' producers, and still respect the central position of the professional journalis.
UPCONTESTED HEGEMONIES: - Citizen journalism: if everone can publish their own news and opinion, gatekeapres aree not needed. Although nowadayss they are needed because no citizen waants to do the job of a gatekeeper journalist or publich news.
CONTESTED HEGEMONIES: NEWS' SELECTION AND REDISTRIBUTION: - Citizens are not producing their own public issues content, but redistributing it by sharing on social media platforms.
- A local issue might in this way become mainstream, even accessing foreign audiences.
- Facebook and Twitter are agents of newselecting,, used by citizens ( through teh action of sharing or kiking a post, a link, an image,...).
- The power of a news media is not a substitute of a traditional media, but it is to make a grat voice form the common citizens that might make a change. Ex: campaigns of NGOs, in order to reach citizens.
- Dangers of social media: no privacy, social media affects the news cycle,...
Social media affects the news cycle: Facebook is for young people the main channel to access news.
- The media regulation is applied in TV, radio and newspapers but it's useless in social media, fo there's now way of banning.