APUNTS DE TOT EL CURS: Development (2017)

Apunte Inglés
Universidad Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona (UAB)
Grado Educación Primaria en Inglés - 2º curso
Asignatura Aprenentatge i desenvolupament
Año del apunte 2017
Páginas 18
Fecha de subida 20/09/2017
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Lesson​​ 1.​​Psychological​​development.​​ Conceptual​​ and​​ theoretical​​ framework.
Psychological​​Development.​​Conceptual​​ and​​theoretical​​framework Objectives - Identify​​different​​conceptions​​on​​the​​development​​and​​its​​implications​​on​​educational practices.
Understand​​the​​fundamental​​basis​​of​​the​​sociocultural​​and​​contextual​​perspective​​of development.
Contents ● ● ● ● Conceptions​​on​​the​​development​​and​​its​​influence​​on​​the​​orientation​​of​​the​​educational action.
The​​controversy​​inheritance​​-​​environment.
Different​​perspectives​​on​​learning​​and​​development.
The​​socio-cultural​​and​​contextual​​perspective​​of​​development.
Object​​of​​Study Developmental​​change​​mechanisms From​​different​​and​​non-convergent​​theoretical​​perspectives The​​dynamics​​between​​development​​and​​learning​​can​​be​​explained​​from​​different​​conceptual frameworks​​(different​​theoretical​​and​​methodological​​perspectives).
Important​​Distinctions ● Growth​​–​​maturation →GROWTH:​​increase​​volume,​​high,​​weight →​​MATURATION:​​is​​functional.​​Related​​to​​functions​​you​​are​​ready​​to​​develop.
● Inheritance​​-​​experience →​​INHERITANCE:​​related​​to​​genetics →​​EXPERIENCE:​​what​​we​​acquire​​from​​our​​relation​​with​​the​​environment.
● Development Development 1. Process​​through​​which​​new​​psychological​​functions​​are​​reached​,​​in​​interaction​​with​​the physical​​and​​socio-cultural​​context,​​which​​becomes​​wider​​and​​more​​complex​.
2. It​​involves​​the​​corporal,​​cognitive,​​and​​socio-affective​​dimensions.
3. The​​developmental​​level​​is​​linked​​to​​the​​ability​​of​​self-regulating​​(conscious,​​intentional​​and voluntary).
4. Qualitative,​​and​​continuous​​phenomenon,​​dialectically​​related​​with​​the​​learning​​processes.
Development​​direction LESSON​​2 CONTENTS/​​OBJ​​​​(CONTINUE) - To​​remind​​the​​conceptual​​foundations​​of​​different​​theoretical​​perspectives​​of​​human development.
To​​emphasize​​the​​conceptual​​keys​​of​​the​​socio-cultural​​approach.
To​​go​​in​​depth​​on​​the​​studey​​of​​the​​socio-cultural​​perspective.
To​​apply​​the​​theory​​to​​a​​current​​educational​​individual.
Different​​approaches​​to​​the​​Development-Learning​​relationship - Social​​history,​​culture,​​experience​​(contextual​​factors)​​(learning-development) Inheritance,​​growth,​​maturation​​(biological​​factors)​​(development-learning) Developmental​​sources​​and​​attributions Theoretical​​discussion - Is​​change​​produced​​by​​ambient​​or​​by​​inheritance? Are​​ change​​and​​development​​stages​​linear,​​universal? What​​is​​the​​role​​of​​education​​in​​development? Theoretical​​Approaches 1. Psychodynamic​​theory​→​​Natural​​basis​​of​​the​​development​​with​​an​​affective-emotional nature.
2. Behaviorist​​theory​→​​Social​​basis​​of​​the​​development,​​it​​depends​​on​​the​​learning.
3. Cognitivist​​theory​→​​Natural​​basis​​of​​development,​​it​​depends​​on​​maturation​​of​​the structures​​that​​allow​​learning.
4. Socio-historic-​​cultural​​theory​→​​Social​​basis​​of​​the​​development,​​it​​depends​​on​​the​​context and​​culture​​influences.
***​​Development​​depends​​on​​the​​context​​and​​the​​cultural​​influence.​​Depending​​on​​the​​theory followed,​​the​​teacher​​will​​have​​one​​or​​another.
1. Psicodynamic​​Approach Psychosexual​​theory​​(Freud)​→​​Behavior​​is​​controlled​​by​​powerful​​unconscious​​impulses​.​​Impulses (pulses)​​are​​the​​basis​​of​​motivation.
Attachment​​theory​​(Bowlby)​→​​Adaptation​​mechanisms​​to​​survive;​​such​​as​​the​​search​​of​​the bonding​​figure​​(secure​​attachment).​​From​​its​​quality​​it​​depends​​the​​future​​socio-affective development.
Psychosocial​​theory​​(Erikson)​→​​Society​​ influences​​on​​the​​personality​​development,​​which​​evolves through​​different​​crisis​​stages​​(contradictions).​​In​​each​​critical​​stage​​(8​​episodes)​​the​​individual​​has to​​solve​​some​​evolutive​​tasks​,​​which​​are​​the​​basis​​of​​identity​​construction​​and​​personal​​growth.
2. Behavioral​​Approach Traditional​​learning​​theory​​​(Pavlov,​​Skinner,​​Watson)→​​Traditional​​approach​​to​​learning.​​People react;​​environment​​controls​​the​​behavior.
3. Cognitivist​​Approach Constructivist​​theory​​​(genetic​​epistemology​​→​​J.​​​PIAGET​) - Piaget​​is​​a​​constructivist​​but​​not​​ a​​social​​constructivist.
-​​​The​​process​​of​​development​​is​​linear:​​you​​need​​to​​complete​​one​​step​​to​​go​​ahead​​with​​the next There​​are​​some​​qualitative​​changes​​ in​​the​​thought​​operations​​that​​occur​​from​​childhood​​to adolescence​​(different​​stages-​​development​​of​​cognitive​​structures).
-STAGE:​​Formal​​operations:​​related​​to​​scientific​​thinking.
PIAGET’S​​TABLE​​THEORY​​(STAGES) - Doesn’t​​give​​importance​​to​​social​​interaction Someone​​have​​to​​complete​​one​​stage​​to​​pass​​to​​the​​next​​one.
It’s​​a​​linear​​process All​​dimensions​​are​​related​​to​​cognitive​​development 4. Contextual​​Approach Sociocultural​​theory​​(Vygostki) Social​​interactions​​are​​the​​basis​​of​​human​​development.
Bio-ecological​​theory​​(Brofenbrenner) Development​​occurs​​through​​the​​interaction​​between​​a​​person​​and​​five​​surrounding​​and interconnected​​systems​​of​​contextual​​influence​​(from​​the​​micro-system​​to​​the​​macro-system) - Development​​related​​to​​→​​interaction,​​participation.
SYSTEM​​≠​​SET​​OF​​THINGS System: - Things​​are​​independent - Work​​together​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ COMMON​​GOAL​​(Outcome) - Interrelated SOCIO-CULTURAL​​PERSPECTIVE - Relevance​​​of​​social​​and​​cultural​​ environment​​for​​development​​(systems​​of​​interactivity) - Primacy​​of​​the​​sociocultural​​line​​of​​development​​over​​the​​natural​​line - Influence​​of​​educational​​interactions​​in​​dynamics​​between​​exogenous​​and​​endogenous factors.
KEY​​QUESTION→​​How​​and​​how​​much​​does​​culture​​influence​​on​​human​​development? Barbara​​Rogoff​→​​Question​​our​​beliefs - When​​does​​intellectual​​development​​of​​children​​make​​them​​able​​to​​take​​care​​of​​other children?​​​9​​years​​old​​aprox,​​or​​older​​in​​our​​society.
- When​​does​​a​​child’s​​judgement​​ and​​coordination​​make​​him​​able​​to​​handle​​sharp​​objects safely?​​11​​years​​old​​aprox - When​​do​​they​​can​​eat​​or​​go​​to​​sleep​​by​​themselves? HOW​​DO​​WE​​UNDERSTAND​​DEVELOPMENT​​(is​​understood?) - Development​​occurs​​through​​changes​​during​​the​​participation​​in​​systems​​of​​interactivity​​in social​​communities.
- Systems​​of​​interactivity​​change​​due​​to​​individuals​​actions.
- Culture​​is​​not​​only​​what​​others​​do:​​consists​​on​​interpretations​​and​​action​​models,​​symbol systems,​​intentional​​universe​​of​​ meanings.
ACCORDINGLY: -The​​structure​​of​​cognitive​​processes​​does​​not​​remind​​static,​​it​​changes​​along​​different​​historic​​and sociocultural​​contexts.
-Cognitive​​processes,​​like​​perception,​​generalization,​​deduction,​​reasoning,​​imagination​​and​​analytic skills,​​vary​​according​​to​​life​​conditions.
-These​​processes​​depend​​on​​the​​mature​​ of​​the​​interactivity​​systems DIVENDRES​​14/10 PSYCHOMOTOR​​PROGRESS​​AT​​SCHOOL​​AGE Lateral​​dominance ● Automation/instrumental​​preference ● Around​​3/6​​years Muscular​​tonicity ● Voluntary​​muscular​​tension ● Related​​to​​representation​​and​​voluntary​​control​​of​​the​​own​​body​​(bed-balloon) ● Affects​​big​​muscular​​groups:​​postural​​control ● Attetion​​and​​emotional​​world Body​​equilibrium ● Capacity​​to​​orientate​​appropriately​​the​​body​​on​​the​​space Organizing​​of​​space​​time​​(first​​action​​ then​​representation) ● Acquisintion​​of​​spatial​​references​​(near-far,inside-out) ● Time​​(before-after/morning-afternoon-night/​​harder​​than​​space ● Objective​​location​​vs​​egocentric​​(where​​sun​​rises?​​At​​what​​time?) Progress​​in​​the​​equilibrium Capacity​​​to​​properly​​orient​​the​​body​​in​​space,​​relation​​ship​​betweenn​​posture​​and​​the outside​​world.
Static​​equilibrium:​​the​​person​​projects​​the​​center​​of​​gravity​​within​​the​​area​​bounded​​by​​the external​​contourrs​​of​​the​​feet.
Dynamic​​equilibrium:​​two​​reversible​​proceses​​occur​​at​​the​​same​​time.
PROGRESS​​IN​​TWO​​ABILITIES 1. Independence​:​​control​​of​​each​​motor​​segment​​separately​​(7-8​​years) 2. Coordination​:​​association​​of​​ motor​​patters​​originally​​independent,​​composed movements​​(more​​complex)​​automatixed.
Progress​​in​​Organizing​​of​​time​​space The​​child​​delimit​​his/her​​body​​in​​relation​​to​​persons,​​objects​​and​​space.
● ● Run,​​stand​​upand​​turn​​with​​control Oriented​​in​​the​​field​​(left,​​right,​​near,​​far,​​inside,​​out,​​until​​x​​limit,​​etc.)​​with​​references in​​space​​and​​not​​in​​his​​own​​body.
● Linking​​and/or​​synchronize​​actions​​within​​a​​time.
Individual​​and​​intercultural​​differences There​​are​​two​​differentiate​​motor​​styles​​in​​function​​of​​muscle​​extensibility: Hypertonic​:​​​more​​oriented​​to​​exploratio,​​difficult​​attention Hypotonic​:​​more​​oriented​​to​​meticulous​​handling,​​fine​​motor​​skills.
Within​​he​​maduration​​allows,​​culture​​can​​support​​in​​greater​​or​​less​​extent​​the​​developmet​​of certain​​skills,​​advancing​​or​​delaying​​the​​appearance​​of​​others.
Goals​​ of​​ development​​for​​the​​psychomotor​​skills​​at​​the​​school​​age0 Psychomotor​​skills​​education Regularized​​and​​Traditional​​Approach​​vs.​​Creative​​and​​Integral​​Approach Taxonomy​​ for​​the​​education​​in​​psychomotor​​dimension (piramide) EN​​ESTE​​LINK​​ESTÁ​​TODO​​LO​​HECHO​​EN​​LA​​ASIGNATURA,​​TODO: http://learninganddevelopmentasensio.weebly.com/psychomotor-skills.html 21/10 IMPORTANT​​CONCEPS: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Maduration Growth Endogenous/Exogenous INheritance Experience Cultural​​tools Philogenetical Ontgenethical Microgenetical Dialectical Deterministic Canalization Guided​​participation Apprenticeship Appropiation Scaffolding Systems​​of​​interactivity Philogenetics​:​​changes​​of​​human​​beings.​​All​​the​​humans.​​i.e:​​how​​you​​comunicate/to​​have computers​​ (technology)/to​​start​​walking​​in​​two​​legs.
Ontogenetics​:​​individual​​change.​​different​​stages​​that​​we​​go​​through.​​changes​​that​​happen along​​an​​individual​​life.​​i.e:​​Fases:​​child→​​teenager​​→​​adult.​​or​​developmental​​changes.
Microgenetics​:​​​changes​​related​​to​​learning.​​small​​changes,​​everything​​we​​learn.
Dialectical​​approach:​​​give​​more​​importace​​to​​sociocultural​​factors.​​Social​​determinism​​and social​​skills​​that​​we​​have​​are​​determined​​by​​our​​participation​​in​​society,​​cutural​​mediation and​​by​​individual​​differences.
Deterministic​​approach​:​​development​​determined​​by​​biological​​aspects,​​by​​individal maduration.​​It​​involves​​that​​everybody​​have​​the​​same​​process​​of​​development/universal traits.
DIVENDRES​​28/10 SYSTEMS​​ OF​​INTERACTIVITY - They​​are​​socially​​and​​culturally​​organized​​activities.
- the​​activities​​consist​​on​​coordinated​​actions,​​which​​are​​systems​​of​​coordiantion, comprised​​by​​operations​​or​​means​​oriented​​by​​purposes​​which​​at​​the​​same​​time represent​​intermediate​​steps​​ to​​meet​​the​​motive​​(outcomes) - These​​actions​​are​​carried​​under​​specific​​constrains.
CONCEPTS​​(ROGGOF) - Personal - Interpersonal - Community​​processes - Appropiation - Guided​​participation - Aprentieceship Appropriation​:​​dynamic,​​active​​and​​continious​​process,​​which​​rather​​treats​​with​​thinking, re/representing,​​giving​​a​​sense, Guided Participation​: Focuses on interpersonal arrangements, engagements involved in the activity as they fit in sociocultural processes. They are coherent with the sociocultural practices​​belonging​​to​​this​​activity.
Apprentieceship​;​​is​​focused​​on​​the​​community​​and​​the​​intitutional​​aspects​​that​​define​​the nature​​of​​the​​practicess​​in​​shich​​persons​​are​​engaged.
BLOCK​​3​​Contents​​thematic​​ block​​ 3 What​​do​​you​​understand​​by​​a​​“cognitive​​process”? Which​​one​​of​​these​​aspects​​would​​you​​relate​​with​​cognition? ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Having​​consciousness Having​​intelligence Think Imagine Create Reasonate Solve​​problems Conceptialize Classify Relate Symbolize Infer Does​​it​​exist​​any​​psychological​​process​​that​​can​​not​​be​​described​​as​​cognitive​​or​​that​​it doesn’t​​imply​​knowledge? Cognitive​​ processes Cognition:​​ mental​​operation​​through​​which​​we​​become​​knowers​​(experts)​​of​​the​​objects​​and life​​(appropiation) Processes​​ through​​which​​the​​sensorial​​input​​is​​transformed,​​reduced,​​elaborated,​​stored, retrieved​​and​​used​​in​​a​​context.
SENSATIONS Stimulus​​reception Immediate​​ effect​​of​​the​​stimulus​​on​​the​​organism.​​Fundamently​​biological​​phenomena (fisiological​​processes​​/sense​​organs) They​​cannot​​recieve​​the​​sound,​​if​​they​​can​​not​​recieve​​the​​sound​​they​​cannot​​develop language.​​ Firts​​goes​​the​​stimulate,​​without​​it​​we​​cannot​​develop.
Stimulus​​processing External​​stimulus​​are​​transmitted​​(CNS)​​and​​are​​transformed​​on​​life​​experiences.
PERCEPTION Information​​organization→​​Information​​interpretation→​​Representation Perceptive​​Predisposition:​​We​​perceive​​what​​we​​expect​​to​​see​​or​​what​​fits​​with​​our preconceived​​ideas​​about​​what​​has​​meaning.
Perceptual​​constancy:​​The​​perceptive​​patterns​​are​​maintained ATTENTION​:​​We​​focus​​the​​thought​​in​​one​​specific​​task,​​is​​motivated​​​to​​develop​​a​​task,​​and to​​reach​​a​​ goal…​​MOTIVATION​​has​​ an​​important​​role.
To​​pay​​attetion:​​we​​select​​recopilation​​of​​information​​of​​optimal​​usefuness​​fort​​he​​task​​that​​ is being​​developed.
MEMORY: Codification​:​​information​​is​​initally​​registered​​in​​a​​way​​that​​the​​memory​​can​​use Storage​:​​maintaining​​of​​the​​stored​​material​​in​​the​​memory.
Retrieval​:​​localization​​of​​the​​storage​​material​​consciousness​​and​​utilization.
BASIC​​AND​​COGNITIVE​​PROCESSES Perception,​​attention​​memory​​→​​básica Language,​​thinking​​process,​​solving​​problems​​(scientific​​and​​críticas​​thinking) Evolutive​​ aspects Piaget​​-​​vygostsky Theories​​that​​explain​​cognitive​​changes Vigotsky:​​Loops​​(circulos):​​not​​in​​steps,​​some​​traits​​are​​faster​​than​​others,​​accomulative competences,​​skills​​that​​complement​​ your​​basis.​​Improving​​your​​basis.
Piaget:​​Stages​​(ages) Learning How​​and​​why​​these​​changes​​happen? - Leaded​​by​​age​​(maturarion) - Leaded​​by​​context​​and​​experiences​​(interactions) ● Assimilation​​​→​​​Use​​information​​fits​​on​​mind​​strutures ● Appropriation​​→​​Use​​of​​knowledge​​in​​a​​social​​context Develop​​is​​not​​for​​steps,​​you​​have​​traits​​that​​you​​can​​develop​​faster​​than​​others.
What​​is​​learning?​​2​​key​​concepts:​​Assimilation,​​Appropiation.
1. New​​information​​of​​environment.​​Outside​​to→​​inside 2. Not​​new​​information.
MENTAL​​vs​​SOCIO-EMOTIONAL Piaget​​more​​mental​​→​​cognitive​​process/​​development Vygotski​​→​​Socio-​​cultural.
SC​​approach​​different​​domines​​interrelated.
Ex:​​language​​development.
According​​ to​​Piaget:​​language​​is​​a​​cognitive​​process,​​part​​of​​a​​mental​​process.
Vygotski:​​imposible​​to​​separare​​thinking​​and​​language.​​Language​​is​​a​​tool​​of​​thinking.​​You learn​​one​​thing​​while​​learn​​the​​other.
For​​Piaget​​ language​​not​​so​​important​​t'han​​for​​Vygotski.​​For​​Vygotski​​2​​important​​skills: reading​​and​​writing.
Cognitive​​ processes​​according​​to​​Piaget Scheme:​​structure​​that​​exist​​in​​an​​subject’s​​mind​​to​​organize​​and​​interpret​​the​​information.
Assimilation:​​mental​​process​​that​​happens​​when​​the​​child​​incoporates​​new​​knowledge​​to​​the previous​​knowledge.
Accomodation:​​mental​​process​​thta​​happens​​when​​the​​child​​adjust​​the​​information​​towards new​​schemes.
Piaget’s​​genetic​​epistemologic Highlighting​​differences - Formal​​thinking​​vs.​​critical​​and​​meaningful​​thinking.​​Crítical:​​Capacity​​to​​analyse, value​​our​​tkinking​​evaluate​​dif​​positions….
- Individual​​discovering​​vs.​​social​​interaction - Self-​​learning​​vs.​​scaffolding.​​ We​​must​​discover​​alone​​without​​help(​​teachers​​role less​​important)​​and​​viceversa - Assimilation​​and​​accomodation​​vs.​​Appropriation​​and​​internalization - Language​​as​​a​​communitcation​​of​​what​​exists​​vs​​language​​as​​thinking​​tool - Cognitive​​ changes - Simple​​structures​​and​​strategies​​are​​replaced​​by​​more​​complex.
- Isolated​​knowledge​​towards​​integrated​​knowledge.​​We​​go​​from​​simple​​knowledge, isolated​​knowledge​​towards​​integranted​​knowladge​​(complex) - Progressive​​reorganization​​of​​ knowledge​​and​​a​​higher​​capacity​​to​​solve​​problem​​and to​​interact​​with​​the​​context.
Loops​​(Overlaping​​waves​​model​​-​​Siegler) - Learning​​implies​​advances​​and​​retreats​​and​​depends​​both​​on​​qualitative​​and quantitative​​aspects.
- Substantial​​variability​​of​​representations.
- Progressive​​introduction​​of​​new​​approaches - Diff​​ strategies​​among​​children - Different​​strategies​​from​​an​​individual​​to​​solve​​problems - Changes​​in​​the​​frequency​​and​​priority Meaningful​​learning​​-​​knowledge​​creation Concrete​​experience​​-​​reflexive​​observation​​-​​abstraction​​contextualization​​-​​Active experimentation We​​start​​by​​the​​concrete​​experience Factors​​of​​cognitive​​change - Combination​​of​​difference​​functions,​​executive​​and​​metacognitive​​process - Experience​​exert​​an​​importnat​​ifluence​​on​​how​​children​​reorganize - Metacognition​​is​​particularly​​relevant​​in​​shcool-aged​​children.​​(Metacognition​​is​​the capacity​​to​​be​​aware​​of​​our​​own​​learning​​and​​thinking) - Feedback​​is​​also​​central.
Metacognition​​and​​feedback​​are​​related​​and​​let​​them​​lead​​their​​own​​learning… Cognitive​​ skills Bloom’s​​taxonomy​​of​​learning Problem​​solving - Determinating​​the​​nature​​of​​the​​problem - Selcting​​the​​components​​of​​the​​appropriate​​performance​​to​​solve​​the​​problem - Selecting​​an​​adequate​​strategy​​to​​combine​​the​​components​​of​​the​​performance - Selecting​​one​​or​​more​​representations​​of​​the​​relevant - Decide​​how​​to​​use​​their​​sources​​of​​porcessing.
- Monitoring​​their​​performance.
- Interpreting​​the​​feedbak​​about​​the​​efficacy​​of​​their​​efforts.
- Deciding​​how​​to​​act​​according​​to​​the​​feedback​​received.
- Change​​their​​performance​​according​​to​​the​​feedback​​received.
3.3​​THINKING​​AND​​LANGUAGE Development​​of​​the​​linguistic​​competente​​​(​IMPORTANT​) 4​​aspectos​​of​​lang​​dev​​(question​​3)​​explain​​3​​of​​this​​4→​​TREBALL ● Phonology:​​​basic​​units​​of​​Sound​​(phonemes)​​1st​​step.​​We​​are​​prepared​​to​​learn​​any language​​of​​the​​world,​​once​​we​​are​​born​​we​​are​​internationally​​in​​language​​terms.
This​​basic​​units​​of​​sounds​​are​​equally​​the​​same​​for​​all​​babies​​from​​all​​around​​the world.
In​​this​​first​​period​​we​​are​​not​​able​​to​​talk​​but​​our​​system​​can​​discriminate​​and reproduce​​this​​sounds​​and​​it-s​​being​​prepare​​to​​reproduce​​the​​different​​words.​​The muscles​​of​​the​​face​​are​​also​​preparing​​and​​developing.
● ● ● Semantic​:​​meaning​​of​​the​​words​​and​​symbols.Combinations​​of​​phonemes​​that​​make a​​word.​​Make​​reference​​to​​this​​object.​​When​​we​​say​​dog​​we​​are​​making​​reference​​ to this​​specific​​object.​​The​​capacity​​to​​link​​the​​sounds​​with​​the​​meaning Sintaxis​:​​grammatical​​rules​​to​​combine​​words:​​it​​has​​sense​​because​​we​​use​​rules that​​make​​sense​​on​​what​​we​​ say.​​We​​combine​​the​​words​​in​​specific​​ways,​​if​​we change​​the​​order​​we​​can​​change​​the​​meaning,​​because​​we​​are​​used​​to​​and​​we​​are able​​to​​do​​those​​combinations.​​You​​only​​learn​​the​​grammatical​​rules​​by​​using language.
Pragmatic​:​​abilities​​to​​efficiently​​communicate:​​different​​uses​​that​​we​​do​​of​​the language.​​The​​fact​​of​​being​​native​​make​​the​​rules​​of​​that​​language​​be​​implicit.​​You don’t​​have​​to​​think​​what​​is​​the​​VB​​and​​his​​position,​​justo​​talk.​​How​​do​​we​​use language​​to​​communicate​​and​​different​​ways​​to​​use​​it.
Human​​beings​​need​​to​​learn​​four​​kinds​​of​​knowledge​​to​​develop​​the​​linguistic​​competence.
- How​​this​​4​​aspects​​are​​related​​to​​writing?​​Phonologic​​training​​is​​relevant​​in​​order​​to learn​​how​​to​​write​​because​​you​​write​​what​​you​​hear,​​so​​phonological​​awareness​​i also​​relevant​​in​​order​​to​​write.
About​​sintaxis,​​is​​important​​to​​ construct​​sentence​​and​​to​​understand​​complex constructions​​as​​well​​as​​the​​meaning​​of​​two​​different​​phrases​​with​​the​​same​​words​​ in a​​different​​order.​​When​​we​​are​​talking​​about​​writing​​we​​are​​also​​talking​​about improving​​the​​sintaxis.
Regarding​​pragmatic,​​we​​work​​a​​lot​​in​​shcool​​with​​them.​​Specific​​aim​​that​​society gives​​to​​the​​school.​​​The​​use​​of​​language​​in​​an​​academic​​context.
In​​the​​text:​​ Innative​​approach​​(Chomstry)says​​that​​​we​​have​​a​​learning​​aquisition​​device​​that is​​a​​genetic​​and​​automatic​​programme.​​And​​the​​socio-constructivism​​defend​​that​​is​​not​​an automatic​​process​​but​​the​​society​​give​​patterns​​to​​facilitate​​the​​aqcuisition​​of​​language.
Many​​people​​discuss​​the​​idea​​of​​the​​ innative​​language​​because​​after​​a​​while,​​children​​can create​​constructions​​of​​words​​that​​they​​have​​never​​listened​​before.
1. Pre/linguistic​​period - Babble - Echolalia DIVENDRES​​2​​DECEMBER BLOC​​ 4-​​SOCIO-AFFECTIVE​​ DEVELOPMENT​​ AND​​ REGULATIONS OF​​ EMOTIONS How​​do​​feelings​​influences​​our​​lives? -Do​​unconscius​​impulses​​lead​​us? -​​Can​​we​​regulate​​our​​behaviour,​​only​​by​​reasoning? -Can​​we​​regulate​​our​​behaviour​​and​​drive​​our​​feelings​​only​​folllowing​​social​​rules​​and moral​​norms​​(Do​​we​​have​​to​​inhibit​​some​​feelings? -​​Do​​circumstances​​(feelings​​emerge)​​force​​us​​to​​react​​to​​certain​​ways? SEMINAR​​ CLASS→​​EMOTIONS Are​​movement​​or​​impulse​​that​​drives​​you.​​It’s​​an​​energy​​that​​we​​should​​canalize.
Hypothesis:​​the​​triune​​brain We​​are​​emotional​​human​​being​​and​​nowadays​​the​​tendency​​is​​to​​think​​that​​we​​are​​more emotional​​than​​rational.
Midbrain:​​Feel-Remember-Interact​​with​​others Neocortex:​​Talk-Think-Move-Create-​​Learn Reptilian​​Brain:​​Survive-React-Repeat-Repeat-Repeat We​​are​​more​​specialized​​in​​one​​of​​these​​brains.Depending​​on​​which​​brain​​we​​have,​​we​​tend to​​react​​to​​ one​​way​​or​​another.​​(ex:​​If​​you​​do​​not​​pass​​an​​exam​​what​​do​​you​​do​​first?​​​to think​​(​​Neocortex​​brain)​​/To​​cry​​(Midbrain)/​​To​​run​​and​​solve​​it​​(Reptilian​​brain).
Diferent​​emotional​​states Mood​​(sensations) - More​​ambigous​​​than​​emotions​​or​​sentiments - More​​connected​​​with​​​physical​​or​​emotional​​perceptions - Less​​elaborated​​than​​sentiments - Less​​cognitive​​implication​​than​​sentiments​​or​​emotions ex:​​“I​​am​​in​​a​​bad​​mood” Emotions.​​ Types: -Far​​more​​automatic​​than​​mood​​or​​sentiments -Associated​​to​​a​​specific​​cause​​in​​a​​much​​more​​direct​​way​​than​​mood -More​​intense​​than​​mood -More​​Temoral​​than​​sentiments​​and​​linked​​​to​​a​​concrete​​situation -Physical​​responses -They​​increase​​as​​we​​grow​​up In​​different​​CULTURES​​there​​are​​rules​​that​​regualte​​the​​emotions’​​expression,​​which​​implies the​​possibility​​of​​a​​difference​​between​​the​​left​​emotion​​and​​the​​apparent​​emotion.
Sentiments​​(feelings) -Emotions​​ become​​sentiments​​due​​to​​cognitive​​processes​​and​​time.
-It​​is​​an​​emotion​​made​​CONSCIOUS,​​which​​we​​identify,​​classify​​and​​evaluate​​thanks​​to​​the language​​mastery.
-They​​are​​related​​to​​an​​accomulation​​of​​experiences -They​​are​​connected​​wth​​motivation​​and​​interests -​​We​​can​​realize,​​when​​this​​emotion​​will​​appear​​and​​why​​we​​feel​​that​​way,​​we​​can​​anticipate our​​feelings​​in​​a​​similar​​situation.
-​​Implies​​the​​past,​​the​​present​​and​​the​​future​​(virtual) 9/12/16 Identity Is​​a​​dinamic​​concept.and​​multiple​​because​​it​​can​​change.​​We​​don’t​​have​​only​​one​​and​​static identity.
Identity​​formation​​​in​​children:​​reach​​awareness​​of​​their​​own​​body​​and​​understand​​theirself​​as a​​​nefdifferent​​person​​from​​others.
The​​first​​step​​to​​acquire​​this​​awareness​​is​​self-observation.
Need​​to​​Identity-self a) one-self​​representation - self-awareness​​(​​emotional​​awareness,​​body​​consciousness,​​self-image) - Bonding​​and​​recognition​​:​​the​​ affective​​bondig​​that​​we​​have​​and​​the​​recognition​​that we​​ get​​from​​adults,​​like​​being​​called​​by​​your​​name.
- Control-regulation b)​​relationahip​​and… Identity​​formation​:​​also​​build​​through​​​feedback​​feom​​others​​‘​​own-identity​​perception​​and the​​perception​​about​​what​​i​​think​​thatnothers​​have​​I Activity Feedbacks​​also​​construct​​our​​identity​​so​​as​​a​​teachers​​we​​have​​to​​take​​care​​about​​what​​we are​​going​​to​​say​​to​​our​​children Identity​​formation To​​reach​​autonomy​​so​​take​​distance​​from​​the​​parents​​(distinguish​​myself​​from​​adults)​​and take​​their​​own​​decision.
Identity​​dimensions: Self​​esteem:​​how​​do​​I​​value​​myself Self​​concept:​​description​​that​​I​​do​​about​​myself Group​​identity: These​​dimensions​​are​​also​​crossed​​by​​Gender Very​​important​​to​​help​​kids​​to​​construct​​a​​positive​​self-esteem​​and​​a​​positive​​identity.​​To​​help them​​having​​succesful​​experiences​​that​​will​​affect​​in​​their​​development.
Self-esteem: - determinants​​(...) - Relation​​w/​​others​​psychologixal​​contenta - ​​Locus​​of​​control:​​internal​​(we​​assume​​the​​responsability​​of​​an​​action​​like:​​I fail​​because​​I​​didn’t​​study.)​​or​​external​​(we​​put​​the​​responsability​​outside​​like​​ I failes​​because​​the​​teacher​​hates​​me) Seminari: All the emotions have an effect. We need both positive and negative emotions. In pur society happiness is overvalued. We tend to try to change a negative emotion quickly to a positive one​​but​​it’s​​necessary​​to​​have​​negative​​emotions​​and​​sometimes​​they​​have​​positive​​effects.
We have to express and canalize emotions. We tend to repress negative emotions because they​​are​​not​​socially​​accepted.​​But​​all​​the​​range​​of​​emotions​​that​​exist​​are​​human.
We have to learn to recognize our emotions, many times located in a part of our body.
Recognize​​that​​you​​have​​these​​feeling​​in​​order​​to​​manage​​it​​better.
We can not judge feeling or ask why somebody feels some way because everybody feel different.​​It’s​​important​​to​​give​​every​​emotion​​its​​place.
Feelings and emotions are socially associated to one gender or another. This is castrated to both genders because these are limits in our emotional regulation. Social and cultural valued influence​​in​​our​​emotions.​​These​​are​​prejudices.
We have to avoid the idea that kids learn and imitate all from their parents because there can be differences even opposites. It depends on the context, who has an important role.
i.e.:​​if​​the​​father​​is​​a​​criminal​​the​​kid​​is​​not​​supposed​​to​​be​​a​​criminal​​as​​well.
Attachment ​bond (key concept of the text) is essential. The theory of attachment sustains that kids tends to create and attachment bond to their parents. The quality of this attachment bond mark the way how we are going to manage our emotions later. Types, kinds of attachement: - autonomous or secure attachment: reciprocal interaction mother-child. Related to democratic educative style. Kids dependent of the parents at the beginning so they need​​them​​available - Dissmissing attachement: the attachement is devaluated by the parents. Permissive or overprotective parents. Sometimes available and sometimes not. they are unsecured - Preoccupied: related to distance parents or authoritarian parents, abandoned or indifferent parents. Generate isolated relations, loneliness, lose self control, agressiveness.
- Unresolved (disorganized from CV) negligence of parents disengagement of the parents​​that​​provoque​​disorganized​​internal​​working​​model.
We have the same division in CV but with other words for each division. ​MOODLE POWER FRIENDSHIPS ...

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