Apuntes Variedades del Inglés (2017)Apunte Inglés
Prof. Eugenio Contreras
Vista previa del texto
Varieties of English
Daniel Antón Pacheco
1. VARIETIES OF ENGLISH: AN OVERVIEW
1. Variation, intrinsic to the existence of a natural language. This variation can be due to certain factors:
status of the speaker (or group of speakers); age; sex (just a minor source for variation), it is not the
case of Western languages but other minor ones; level of education and ways of expressions; social
class; ethnicity, overall, though it is more important in particular countries (South African or Afro
American English). These few factors trigger a highly complex mixture (including personal history).
2. Same language or different language? this distinction is basically based on historical and political facts, so there is no clear-cut answer. Political factors: like in the case of Danish, Swedish are mutually intelligible but “different languages;” Dutch-German border: mutual intelligibility, but Dutch or German, according to the speaker’s territory (they are still mutually intelligible); different dialects of “one and the same” language, not always mutually intelligible. Even if they are not mutually intelligible, they are sometimes considered dialects. This fact typically happens in old countries like in the case of Europe.
3. British English, American English. National standards: associated to the prestige variety used by educated people. These two languages are not considered standard at all, though they just share small differences; the obvious increasing influence of AmE in BrE is converging rather than growing apart.
When teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) it is difficult to choose which model due to the historical antiquity of British English and the strong influence of American English. This last mentioned struggle usually deals with the influence of history and geography and sometimes, it depends on the educational institution. Besides, sometimes, it depends on the particular teacher.
4. Colonial history is also essential. In some cases, English became L1 (case of the independence of American or British colonies). Some particular cases are, for instance, the AmE (1776) and CanE (1887) which are varieties that share a common culture and commercial links, but Canadians, apprehensive about their neighbours, tend to exaggerate differences. The case of AusE (1901) is more closely related to BrE, but we can find a considerable AmE influence since the WWII.
5. The comparison between Canada and Australia is highly interesting because they were the third and the fourth nations to become independent from the British Empire. Both share longest history of independence (excluding USA) and quest for linguistic separatism (even national dictionaries).
However, these differences are rather found in the accent than in grammatical points. In the case of New Zealand, Ireland and South Africa, we can see that since they are not strong nations, there is not a codification of standards at the same level of BrE and AmE. In all L1 countries, the written standard is relatively similar despite they defend that they do have common standards. There is a trivial variation in spelling and punctuation, a relatively minor variation in grammar and, of course, a more significant variation in vocabulary.
In the case of English as a second language, some of these nations are India, Nigeria, Ghana, (former American) Philippines. The reason of this L2 consideration resides in a lack of extensive settlement !1 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ by English speakers. English is actually an additional language acquired at school. After the independence of these countries, most colonies have retained English in some official capacity.
7. Pragmatic reasons: multilingual societies with English as a lingua franca for internal communication.
In some countries, it is the language used in institutions like the National Parliament, higher courts, central administrations or higher education; besides, there are attitudes towards standardisation, divided (for and against). Those attitudes for are based on nationalistic reasons, whereas those against are to encourage independent local varieties which will reduce the value of their English for international communication.
8. EFL: sometimes, there are clear cases, e.g. Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, Germany, Japan, etc. There is no claim to local varieties (*French English, *Japanese English), even if they may have characteristics of their own (“mistakes”), when using either of the two main standards. For sure, the delicate analysis deals with local practice. It is very difficult to talk about mistakes when language is such a power instrument that can be spread out and establish a norm. Sometimes, no clear-cut distinction between EFL and L2: e.g. in Malaysia, English is no longer official, but is till used for some important functions.
!2 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE COMPLEX (WORLD/GLOBAL ENGLISHES): A CLASSIFICATION 1. Perspectives of study: • Historical linguistics and the notion of English as a Germanic language deals with a separation into regional and social dialects. Again, the separation between language and dialect is, also in here, a controversial issue.
• Secondly, sociolinguistics and the consequences of the colonisation made up by the British Empire, which produced a language spread.
• The language contact deals with structural similarities and differences amongst Englishes.
• Political and ideological studies do have a remarkable impact on varieties of any language. It deals with the ‘linguistic imperialism’ and its relations of dominance.
• Applied linguistics is relevant as well in terms of English teaching globally. English has a role in modernisation, government and education.
• Cultural and literary studies create an impact upon different cultures and literatures. Use of language in different territories, literatures and authors is another way of studying and clarifying Englishes despite the origin of the author. In fact, the spread of English ends up in a construction of new identities via bilingualism.
• More areas of linguistics such as discourse analysis, stylistics, pragmatics, textlinguistics, etc. do deal with varieties of discourse: e.g. oral ~ written. For sure, this study on varieties also depends on the area of knowledge the text is written in (science, politics, etc.), specific social situation (gender, class), communicative genre in terms of differencing, e.g., poetry and joke.
All of this usually intermingled with regional variation (international and intranational) and last, but not least, personal history and temperament.
2. The field of ELC There are several and a considerable number of fields, though we shall develop just some of them: !3 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ a) Metropolitan standards: the traditional way of standardisation is establishing common features like in the Standard English of England (RP) which is transmitted through ration and TV networks); BrE: London and AmE: Washington, Los Angeles, (CNN) Atlanta as the main spread centres.
b) Colonial standards: we have in different degrees some countries excluded out the UK and the USA such as Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa, Zambia (Northern Rhodesia), Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia). In all these countries we find numbers of English speakers who are really significant in the development in the use of both formal and informal varieties. As British influence recedes, much more prominent than int he recent past, these countries are more able to be identified as particular English variants.
c) Regional dialects: regional variation within metropolis and colony in which the older the settlement of English speakers, the firmer the regional differentiation within the language is. In the case of Europe, it can be seen in many countries (not only Germanic, though). That is why not only BrE, but also AmE is present in ancient British colonies such as Australia or Canada.
d) Social dialects: not only is that regional differentiation, but also in social classes, ethnic membership or age we can appreciate different varieties. For instance, in the case of London, Cockney accent is traditionally attributed to the working class, the RP to the upper-middle class and there is even an intermediate called ‘Estuary English;’ in the case of Australia, it can be found a broad variety (traces of its origins in British working-class dialects), a cultivated variety (historically oriented towards RP), and a General variety (mediating between the two poles); Ethnolects (ethnic dialects) like Black English (or AAVE: African American Vernacular English), distinct variety (with some regional variation)1.
e) Pidgin2 Englishes: it is more associated to the process of colonisation. Pidgin is a language which is more spontaneous and which is meant to be lexified by English. Historically, Pidgin has existed for very long, likely for colonial processes and its arising from trade and other contact. It is possible that pidgin speakers do not speak the arriving language, though they truly can understand it. E.g. West African pidgin English is ‘lexified’ by English. Words may be pronounced in a way which is hard to understand by native speakers.
f) Creole Englishes: children from an early pidgin generation learn what their parents have inherited or even created by mixing the colonial language and their original language. In the Caribbean, for example, we shall see cases like this in which pidgins are created after the British colonisation and so spread later on. Typically ‘mixed’ features such as grammar and lexicon from different sources.
Jamaican creole seems to be structurally an independent language, but increasingly influenced by English (‘authorised’ language of the educational system).
g) English as a Second Language (ESL, L2): in these cases, English is introduced in the colonial era by a significant number of speakers of English. Face-to-face communication or more usually via the 1 Groups A-D have English as their L1.
2 Rudimentary language used by speakers who are native speakers from different languages !4 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ education system. I.e. Kenya, Sri Lanka or Nigeria are some examples of these bilingual countries.
Besides, in this cases there has been publishing of books in English as the main language.
h) English as a Foreign Language (EFL): the number of these speakers is narrowed down in this case because of the main use of L1. These countries do have English as an external influence (no ‘settlers’). English is used not for internal reasons, but because of international reasons (e.g. EU politics). Besides, there is typically no creative writing in English due to the dominance of L1.
i) Immigrant Englishes: originating as EFLs, they may retain some distinctiveness or may merge with the regional English of their territory (social and economic factors). For instance, Chicano English is still a distinct variety, not EFL (as in Mexico), not ESL, because of stronger influence of metropolitan English.
j) Language-shift Englishes: English replaces the original language of a community. In the case of the US, the Native Indian population was practically extinct and so their original languages. The effort to maintain the original language is helpful in order to maintain the culture. Typically a mixture of adult and child L1 and L2 speakers, it can, in time, develop into a social dialect (only L1 speakers). In Ireland, Hiberno English is a traditional term to classify the native variety of the country can, perhaps, maintain the Celtic culture.
k) Jargon Englishes: these cases are caused by a contact between South Sea Islanders (Pacific) and Europeans in the 19th century. Jargons, however, shoe a great individual variation and instability.
Jargons are not so expanded as, for instance, creoles. Tok Pisin, today a stable and expanded pidgin, is one of the official languages in Papua New Guinea.
l) Hybrid Englishes: it is the case of bilingual mixed languages. Result of code-mixing in urban centres where a local language comes into contact with English. E.g. Hinglish (derogatory), Hindi-English in north Indian cities, may have some prestige among urban youth in informal styles.
Problems with this classification because of its mixture (clear-cut examples like’ standards’ with fuzzy boundaries between categories), in fact it focusses on ‘products’ rather than ‘processes:’ Language is not a set of codified forms (grammars, dictionaries) or written norms (literature, print media); language is constantly being made and remade by speakers in terms of their situation, need, interlocutor, audience, knowledge of other ‘languages,’ general strategies of communication, etc. Besides, in some cases, the historical situation is indication that the category is shifting (e.g.. Scandinavia EFL ⇨ ESL).
3. The native speaker: controversy There is a traditional distinction in which a speaker is not totally considered native. By definition, a native speaker is someone who has learnt the language from birth without formal instruction; on the other hand, a non-native speaker (ESL) is someone who has learnt it as a 2nd (or later) language some time after being initiated into his/her native language, so that they do not have the same automatic fluency as a native speaker.
!5 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The definition is based on the norms of monolingual societies, but the world is largely multilingual. For instance, a child in multilingual societies may be said to have several native languages. Besides, the order of acquisition is not an indicator of ability. There is parallelism: - Multilingual: according to situation, language-switching; - Monolingual: according to situation, style-switching.
Some scholars claim that grammatical deviations found in some Englishes are not qualitatively different from differences between dialect and standard English or between some historical stage of standard English and another. Sometimes, speakers do commit certain errors despite their L1 or L2 competence.
These errors trigger a deviation on communication or a matter of fact with different connotations.
Peculiar constructions are found in different ways depending on the dialect or variation. There are some historical considerations since we have to see the periods in which a language has been developed such as the multiple negation. This last example is not considered standard in English language. Thus languages tend to find a standardisation. Consequently, there is a mixture of structural features present in ‘native’ and non-native varieties of English. It can be said that a language is a system partly inherited, partly being made by its speakers.
Some scholars situate themselves in a radical position, by which they state that monolingual speakers have no more authority than (fluent) multilingual speakers. Conversely, some others have a moderate position which declares that the acquisition contexts being different, there is always a difference between ENL and ESL. !6 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE COMPLEX: FROM OLD ENGLISH TO THE PRESENT DAY 3.1. Old English (OE) Old English (OE): mid 5th c. - 11th c.; ‘First crossing’ (migration/invasion), this invasion was taken up by, mainly, Germanic tribes (Angles, Saxons…); besides, Britain suffered additional invasions by NorthSea and north-western Europeans during the AD c. 450; the ultimate results merged the birth of Old English language (a.k.a. Anglo-Saxon). In this case, English is fragmented due to the multiple norms and a considerable variation of the language itself. Multilingual setting, borrowing from Celtic languages and a possibility of bilingualism (there is no textual evidence, though). For sure, Latin plays an important role in the creation of Old English because of the long-stay of Romans in Britain; another kind of variation was introduced by the 8th to the 11th century with the Viking invasions and settlement which caused a considerable language contact. In the remaining part, Alfred the Great, having came into an agreement with the invaders, ended up establishing a norm. Hence we will find a written standard based on West Saxon.
Typology through regional dialects, ethnic dialects (different Germanic tribes), social dialects (kings and lords did not speak in the same way servants did), bilingualism with Celtic-English speakers (it is incipient, unclear) and English-Norse speakers (this bilingualism is more extensive and lead to a pidginisation controversy). Language-shift Englishes will be found in Britain at that time as well as some degree of ESL prior to shift.
3.2. Middle English (ME) Middle English (ME) is dated ca. 1100-1500 and established a significant difference to Old English after the Norman Conquest (1066). The conquest lead to a clear diglossia in the island with French and English speakers, though French was rather used by new upper classes. They composed their language but French was not taught to lower classes, so they kept on speaking in their native languages. This period of bilingualism was, therefore, found among segments of population and was the cause of a convergence between native and L2 French speakers which ended up in a kind of Anglo-Norman variety. The influence of French was so specialised in high classes that it was the Nordic invaders who entered into the development of Middle English language.
After the Norman Conquest, we can find a diglossia between French (new upper classes) and English (subjects), so we are in a period of bilingualism among segments of population. In addition, there will be !7 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ a clearer convergence in English than in Anglo-Norman. In terms of differences in relation to OE, differences which lead to a Creole debate (Germanic-Romance hybrid).
A ‘second crossing’ ended up in the conquest of Ireland by Henry II in 1164. This conquest was not completed at all as in the very case of England itself, there was not a mass invasion. French nobility and English soldiers and servants were sent to Ireland. Anyhow, English did not really spread at this time and colonisers showed a kind of bilingualism (shifted to Irish).
3.3. Early Modern English (EME) (c. 1500-1700) The Modern Age is appreciated as something relevant in the developing of English, so a new standard English emerged. The distance from Romance languages was so obvious that the use of Latin became something not so relevant. Importance of changes in administrative and cultural issues. Initially, it was only written (Chancery English, later on developed). It is already introducing elements of East Midland to the north of this area. This later on developed to finding not only the written form but the oral form by the 1700s to 1800s. In many respects, features associated with this oral standard were found in the south of the island up to creating the RP. Therefore, this standard British variety bears a wide relationship with the southern accent of the time. An ideology of standardisation explains that BrE was once based on spoken (regional) dialects, and later on the primordial entity from which other dialects deviate.
3.4. Modern English (ModE) (1500 onwards) This period is featured by a thirst for exploration and colonisation: the period of spread. Even in Britain we do find an internal colonisation in Wales, Scotland and (2nd time) Ireland. In the case of Ireland (Irish English, aka Hiberno English) the imposed language (super-stratum) is clearly influenced by the native language (sub-stratum). The real expansion was produced in the 17th century through new English migrations and economic control. These territories were linguistically conquered by imposing English as the only native language from the 18th century on. An informal standard with many substrate features will lead to colonial varieties; in the case of Wales the history is not so imperial as the case of Ireland, but we do find an imposition which begun in the Norman period and was formalised by the Tudors (16th c.). In the 19th century we willl find a real spread of English through the industrialisation of the UK; in the case of Scotland, the colonisation started earlier than in the previous territories in the 7th c. with a Northumbrian English taken up by the Anglo-Saxons until reaching Scots (L1 variety) as a national language. The real union with England was in the 1707 the Scots was reduced to a social and regional dialect of English (there are movements toward recognition and promotion of Scots as a separate language). Besides, English was introduced in the mid 18th c as an L2 in the Scottish Highlands, where it will be gradually replaced by Gaelic.
!8 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The ‘Third crossing’ (≡ ‘First diaspora’) took place out the British Islands. From the 16h c. on, an external colonisation took place parallel to other European languages (Spanish, Portuguese, French and German), so the US English rose to a position of co-standard with Southern British English. The US English as a rival over EFL territories like Japan and China. When learning the results of the process of colonisation, historians propose a highly useful distinction: a) ‘colonies of settlement’ > ‘transplanted varieties:’ USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, some islands (e.g. Falklands [Malvinas]) b) ‘colonies of exploitation’ (2nd half of the 19th c.): trading outposts with small numbers of traders with no intention of long-term settlement. Parts of Africa and Asia. In this case, English was not a native variety of the population, so we can appreciate prototypical ESL territories wherein Pidgins arose. If there was large-scale population displacements (or even decimation of indigenous people), frequent re-peopling with multilingual slaves (or hired workers) > emergence of Creole languages, only partly based on the colonial language.
c) ‘protectorates:’ (not formally colonised) Africa (Botswana, Lesotho, Egypt), Middle East (Saudi Arabia, Iraq) where it can be found an intermediate between prototypical ESL and EFL. We cannot expect any other thing than a very reduced group of people exploiting these territories.
The ‘Fourth crossing’ (≡ ‘Second diaspora’) is considered to be a post-colonial type (globalising world) with examples such as China or the former Soviet Union. Embracing English teachers from the West. !9 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. THE THREE-CIRCLE MODEL OF WORLD ENGLISHES In the first circle, we typically find countries wherein English is spoken as a foreign language. In the second circle, we can find nations of exploitations carried out by the British Empire.
Statistics are not included since they are very out of date at the present time, but it can be seen in this list from wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_English-speaking_population !10 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2 lists: a) In order of total speakers, either as L1 or as an “additional language” (i.e., L2, EFL, etc.) b) In order of native (L1) speakers Comments of the diagram: The 3 circles represent: - Types of spread - Patterns of acquisition - Functional allocation of English in diverse cultural contexts In the case of Inner circle corresponding the the ‘first diaspora’ we can find English as the native language in these countries with ‘norm-providing’. On the other hand, the Outer circle gathers ESL (L2) countries with ‘norm-developing.’ Finally, the Expanding circle (second diaspora) represents EFL countries with ‘norm-dependent.’ Problems with this model: It is mainly based on geography and history rather than on the way speakers identify with and use English: - an increasing number of speakers in the Expanding Circle use English for a wide range of purposes.
- English, increasingly being used as medium of instruction in European schools and universities and more recently in Expanding Circle Asian countries (China).
The difference between circles is sometimes difficult to see: - in some Outer Circle countries, English may be the L1 for many people (even spoken in the home) Increasingly grey area between Outer and Expanding Circles: - transition EFL > ESL status, e.g. Argentina, Belgium, Costa Rica, Denmark, Sudan, Switzerland and some others.
Difficulty in distinguishing L1, L2 and L3 and so on in many bilingual or multilingual countries (already discussed). Difficulty in using the model to define speakers in terms of their proficiency in English: - limited vocabulary and low grammatical competence may be shown by a native speaker, while an L2 to L3 speaker may be perfectly competent.
Implication that the situation is uniform for all countries within a particular circle: - Inner Circle: different amount of linguistic diversity.
- Outer Circle, different in a number of respects: • spoken mainly by an elite (India) • more widespread (Singapore) • a single L1 group > one variety (Bangladesh) • several different L1 groups > different varieties (India) Implications of term ‘Inner Circle:’ speakers of ENL countries, central, but their worldwide influence is in fact in decline. Because of this, we can see that it is by no means a perfect model.
!11 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.1. Standard language ideology in the Inner Circle Standard language: term for that variety considered to be the norm. It is considered optimum for educational purposes since it is also considered a prestige variety spoken by a minority of people within a society (positions of power). From the historical point of view, this standard was not commonly spoken, though it is the fact that this variety was spoken by an elite what turned it into a standard (any linguistic reason to choosing a particular standard, then). Therefore, it comes to be a prestigious variety. When this particular variety is chosen as standard, the rest of varieties are considered to be wrong or nonprestigious, but the ideological component states that this standard is simply a deviation. One common process is to establish rules, so the standard variety is prescriptive so that all members of a language community are exposed and urged to conform during education. These rules, even in the most generic sense, change over time. Whenever this happens, supporters of this norm say that every change is incorrect.
Commonly, a standardising process follows four stages: 1. Selection: the most critical stage ⇒ one variety rather than any other is chosen as the one that will be developed as the standard language; often, an existing variety which already has political and/or economic importance; e.g. Modern standard English: East Midlands (OE, Mercian) dialect favoured by the educated class in London. After the Norman Conquest, the Royal Court moved away from Winchester (West Saxon dialect, former written standard).
2. Codification: the variety chosen has to be ‘fixed’ in grammar books and dictionaries; accessibility to standard forms for those who wish to use the language ‘correctly.’ 3. Elaboration of function: in order to perform a wide range of institutional and literary functions (government, law, education, science, literature); new lexical items added and new conventions developed.
4. Acceptance: of the selected variety as the standard and, most probably, the national language of the community; commonly the case: selection made by those who have the right of veto; those who lack political and economic power, associated to their use of an ‘inferior’ language variety: a social, regional or ethnic variety, e.g. Cockney variety from London associated to the working class.
What is standard English? It is not an easy task since there is any easy language variety to identify. In the case of Spanish, French or Italian, academies prescribe the forms to be codified in grammars and dictionaries and those which are not. Conversely, English is a ‘non-academy’ standard language. Trudgill ‘Standard English:’ what it isn’t? (1999) states that: - English is not a language, but only one variety of a given English; - there is not an accent: in Britain, RP is spoken by 12-15% of the population, of whom 9-12% use a regional accent; !12 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ - not a style: in can be formal [F], neutral [N] and informal [I]. E.g. Father was exceedingly fatigued subsequent to his extensive peregrination [F] - Dad was very tired after his lengthy journey [N] - The old man was bloody knackered after his long trip [I]; - not a register: no necessary connection between standard English and register (largely a matter of lexis in relation to subject matter); - not a set of prescriptive rules: it can tolerate features not traditionally allowed by prescriptive grammarians (based on Latin) ⇒ sentence-final prepositions (I’ve bought a new car which I’m very pleased with; copula/ comparative + Object Pronoun (It’s me; he is taller than me) To conclude, standard English has greater prestige than other variety, it does not have an associated accent which means that it does not form part of a geographical continuum. Hence, it is purely a social dialect.
4.2. Standard English features in the Inner Circle: British English—US English When we say that these varieties differ, we mean that they are mutually intelligible. Nevertheless, certain characteristic features must be aware: a) Vocabulary: most noticeable level of divergence (in any variety) 1) need for early settlers to name new items: • extension of meaning of existing English words (corn —> grain in Britain, maize in North America); • creation of new words: butte (an isolated all with a flat top); • borrowing from the Native Americans: moccasin, squash, toboggan.
2) after separation, further divergences (e.g. in media): some products which were invented later present different varieties depending on the side of Atlantic (USE windshield, hood, trunk/ BrE windscreen, bonnet, boot).
A very simple way to present differences between varieties is by classifying these words: a) some word, different meaning: pavement BrE footpath, sidewalk — USE road surface; b) same word, additional meaning in one variety: regular consistent habitual USE + average, normal; smart intelligent BrE + well-groomed; c) same word, difference in style, connotation, frequency of use: autumn BrE ⇒ common — USE ⇒ poetic or formal (‘fall’); d) same concept, different word b) Grammar Verbs - Morphology: past and participle endings ⇒ BrE dived, sneaked, got — USE dove, sunk, gotten; !13 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ - Auxiliaries: epistemic ‘must’ in negatives ⇒ BrE He can’t be in - his car has gone — USE must not; Nouns - -ee, -ster, frequent in USE: retiree, draftee. teamster, gamester; - different derivational endings: BrE candidature, centenary — USE candidacy, centennial; - USE: greater tendency for verbs as nouns: USE a shut-in (‘an invalid’), a try-out (‘audition’); Adjectives and adverbs - BrE different from (to) — USE different than; - just/ yet/ already: BrE + present perfect (I’ve just had lunch) — USE + simple past (He already left); Prepositions - different forms: BrE behind USE in back of; I put it behind / in back of the shed - expressions of time: BrE I haven't seen him for ages / weeks; USE I haven't seen him in ages / weeks - clock time: BrE twenty to three/ five past eight; USE twenty of / till three-five after eight - in, on: BrE to live in a street/ USA to be on a street 4.3. Phonology in the Inner Circle: RP and General American vowel systems RP (excluding schwa) Checked vowels are those vowels which cannot occur in final position, nor in a stressed monosyllable.
Free vowels, on the other hand, occur in the final position. They are not subject to this constraint.
General American (GenAm) !14 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Unlike RP, the General American (GenAm) variety is rhotic, so its vowel system is modified.
List of lexical sets: 4.4. Standard and non standard variations in the Inner Circle Non-standard English in Britain When we refer to differences in grammar, scholars state that it is not that essential, since differences are mainly based on accent. In the case of Britain, we can find the following features of the British workingclass speech: 1. Multiple negation: I didn’t do nothing 2. Ain’t as negative of auxiliary have: I ain’t got one 3. Never used to refer to a single occasion in the past: I never done it (StBrE: I didn’t do it) 4. 3s [-s] extended to 1s and 2s verb forms: I wants, you wants, he wants 5. Regularisation of be: We was, you was, they was !15 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Regularisation of some irregular verbs: I draw, I drawed, I have drawned; I go, I went, I have went; I come, I come, I have come 7. Optional -ly on adverbs: He writes real quick 8. Unmarked plurality on nouns of measurement after numerals: twenty year, ten pound [*mind the less redundant expression] 9. Different forms of the relative pronoun: the man as/what lives here 10. Regularisation of reflexive pronouns: myself, yourself, hisself, ourselves, theirselves 11. Distinction between main and auxiliary verb do: You done it, did you? (StBrE: You did it, did you?) Non-standard English in the US Traditionally, standardises is not an issue in the US to the same extent as it is Britain. The real fact is that attitudes towards standardises really exist but are connected in the US with race rather than class.
Dialects spoken by speakers of Hispanic English3 and Black English (AAVE4) are the most highly stigmatised.
The verb phrase 1 Irregular verbs (north and south): past as ppl. form: ‘I had went down there.’ ppl. as past form: ‘He seen something out there.’ bare root as past form: ‘She come to my house yesterday.’ different irregular form (some southern rural vernaculars): ‘Something just riz (rose) up right in front of me 2 Completive ‘done:’ ‘done’ emphasising a completed action or event. For example, I done forgot what you wanted (adverbial use, Itziar 2017) 3 Habitual ‘be’ (AAVE and some southern varieties): She usually be in the evening 4 a-prefixing (some southern and many other rural varieties): a-prefix on -ing forms function ing as verbs. i.e. He was a-coming home; he starts a-laughing (something is in progress, Itziar 2017). Constraints: a) not with -ing forms as nouns or adjectives; b) forms with stressed 1st syllable, preferably with initial consonant.
5 Double modals (CV) Adverbs -ly absence (south): They answered wrong; she enjoyed life awful well 3 May be associated with Chicano English.
4 African American Vernacular English (AAVE).
!16 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Negation Multiple negation and ain’t, main features in vernaculars.
1 Multiple negation (several types with diversified presence in vernaculars). e.g.: the man wasn’t saying nothing.
2 Ain’t: be+not She ain’t here now; have+not; did+not (CV) Pronouns: (most vernacular dialects) - regularisation of reflexive forms: he hit hisself on the head; they shaved theirselves - object forms in co-ordinate subjects: me and him will do it - 2p form: Y’all won the game (southern); Youse won the game (northern); You’uns/Yinz (<you ones) won the game (southern Appalachia to Pittsburgh) - object forms as demonstratives: them books are on the shelf (south, also Britain) - dative use of object pronoun (=ethical dative) I got me a new car; we had us a little dog (south) !17 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.5. Regional dialects in the Inner Circle: the British Isles and the USA 1. England 1.1. Traditional Excluding western rip of Cornwall and most of Wales, not English-speaking until 18th c. or later. These dialects are closely related to the dialect divisions in OE and ME. In total, we can find thirteen dialect areas with a strong division between the North and everywhere else. This division is a boundary between the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Northumbria and Mercia. A secondary division can be appreciated between much of the Midlands and areas further south. This secondary division triggered a traditional survey, biased towards rural areas. (traditional-left; modern-right) 1.2. Modern The past influence is still to be included in a modern division of English English dialects. Old pronunciations can still be occasionally heard but are now rare (mainly in rural within the country). In 20th century, comparatively new dialects forms chiefly associated to urban areas of the country were studied. In this modern division, we can find 16 major division wherein several pronunciations must be considered. The most famous distinction in pronunciation is the rounded short /ʊ/ in the North and the open /ʌ/ in the South (which will lately be included in the standard RP): e.g. up /ʌp/ (S) and /ʊp/ (N). The distinction between N and S is not longer set in England but in the border between England and Scotland.
!18 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Scotland (Scots) The variety of English spoken in Scotland is commonly known as Scots. It is said to be the most distinguishable dialects of English in the UK. Reasons for this are explained with the independence of Scotland in the Late Middle Ages and its clearly defined history of its own with a strong literary tradition (Middle Ages). Strong tradition of academic linguistic study and societies devoted to the promotion of Scots as a language. All these factors lead to a remarkable identity due to its much more than a distinctive regional accent, grammar and vocabulary. It shows a degree of institutionalisation (law, local government, Scottish Parliament). In spite of this it has not acquired prestige.
Counties before 1975 started up a reorganisation of local government in the UK. Highlands and Hebrides are not included since they are traditional Gaelic-speaking areas). Insular Scots could be divided in Orkney and Shetland, though we can also find Northern, Central and Southern division. There are cases to be discussed like Ulster and Urban Scots. During 20th c., a fictional movement known as the Scottish Renaissance dealt with a standard literary variety based on literary and dialect usages from the Scottish Lowlands. There is more influence of Standard English than other Scots dialects, which is actually controversial (‘plastic Scotts’).
!19 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Wales When studying Welsh dialects, it must be taken into account the presence of the Welsh language, which is a direct descendant of the Celtic language spoken on the island before the Anglo-Saxon invasion. The first successful invasion of this territory was carried out by the Normans, who could spread the English language, but Celtic survived. In 19th c. (Industrial Revolution), a massive emigration of Welsh speakers to England took place. Later, there was an immigration of English speakers in the mining industries.
Finally, anglicisation was the result of the generalised dominance of English in technology, media and economy. Nevertheless, there are attempts of regeneration of the Welsh language. Today, the country remains bilingual, but the future of this language is uncertain.
4. Ireland The Emerald island was traditionally invaded by Anglo-Normans under Henry II in 12th c. Settlers, however, adopted Irish ways of living, included the Gaelic language, rather than the other way around.
Since 16th c., renewed efforts to spread English power. Protestant settlers, mainly from the Scottish Lowlands repopulated the colony. In 1801, the Act of Union takes place and in 1820 the Partition. As a result, Ireland is clearly a mainly English speaking country, particularly from the 19th c., in spite of attempts to preserve Gaelic (but it is still present in certain rural parts of the west, known as Gaeltacht). At present, there is no sign or very little sign of a regionally distinctive educated standard, but a significant !20 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ number of features in non-standard speech. Traditionally, Irish English is known as Hiberno-English. The term Anglo-Irish is more commonly used when identifying Celtic influence. It is historically an example of a language-shift English.
Dialect division: Great division between the northern and the southern part (former province of Ulster, which is a little bit larger than the present political division). In the case of Ulster, the most important influence comes from the historical fact of the repopulation made up by the Ulster-Scots. The rest of the island is Mid-Ulster and South-Ulster and is still influenced by west and north-west Midlands. Rural dialects in the west are highly conservative and present a strong influence of Gaelic. Throughout the country, we can find an educated variety of Hiberno-English, whose influence of Gaelic is weaker but identifiable as Irish by outsiders. On the other hand, urban dialects can be divided in the areas of Dublin and Belfast, more heavily influenced by English. Many of the non-standard forms found in the urban dialects of GB.
5. The United States of America In the case of the USA, the internal varieties are more reduced than in the British Islands’ case. Along the Atlantic coast we find the sharpest regional (and social) differenced in speech.
!21 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Earliest European settlements established; 13 colonies (together independence in 1776); From the east, settlement to the west, which explains that main isoglosses run horizontally, east to west; Traditionally, we distinguish northern and southern varieties: 5.1. Northern Historically, it is the region of New England, but extending west in a narrow strip. According to some other divisions across all the northern states to the Pacific coast. A significant feature of this variety is that it is non-rhotic.
5.2. Southern Varieties found around the coastal areas from southern Delaware through the Gulf States and extending to the eastern part of Texas. Frequently non-rhotic.
5.3. Midland A very large area which is extended across almost all the whole country. It is the vast size of the Midland that accounts for the impression of general uniformity of AmE speech.
!22 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. NEW ENGLISHES 5.1. New Englishes I: General introduction General introduction This comes from the historical period in which we said there was a first diaspora. These first movements belong to countries from the Inner Circles due to the migrations to North America, Australia, New Zealand (L1 varieties).
• USA/Canada - From early 17th c. (English), 18th c. (North Irish) to USA - From 17th c. African slaves to South American stats and Caribbean ISLANDS - fROM 1776 (Am. independence) some British settlers to Canada • Australia (from 1770) • New Zealand (from 1790s, official colony in 1840) Different development from colonial BrE: a) mixture of dialects and accents among the settlers and b) influence of the languages of indigenous populations (primarily lexical). But even so, because they were spoken as mother tongues, there is strong element of continuity in the use of these Englishes from precolonial days.
When the second diaspora took place, we have migrations to Africa and Asia (L2 varieties), but not in significant numbers as in the previous cases. The variety of English which emerges from these migrations is influenced by higher classes.
• South Africa: from 1785, 3 groups of L2 English speakers (Afrikaans/Blacks/ from 1860s Indians.
There was a movement of migration from India to South Africa, so we are finding historical figures like Mahatma Ghandi as English speakers.
• South Asia: from 1600, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan (1765-1947 British sovereignty in India) • SE Asia and South Pacific: from late 18th c., Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Philippines • Colonial Africa: two great divisions: - West (from late 15h c.): Sierra Leone, Ghana, Gambia, Nigeria, Cameroon, Liberia (no major English emigrant settlements which triggered pidgins/creoles).
- East (from c. 1850): Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe Another relevant movement taking Africa and Asia took place in the Epoch of the Empire. The first case starts in West Africa with a considerable slave trade and development of pidgins and creoles. West Africa was not a major British settlement, though English was used as a lingua franca both among the indigenous population (hundreds of local languages) and between these people and the British traders. In !23 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ the case of English acquiring official statues, some pidgins and creoles (Krio in Sierra Leone, Cameroon Pidgin English, were spoken by large numbers of people, especially as L2.
The second dispersal (Asia and Africa) could be studied by two patterns: West and East: • West Africa: slave trade and development of pidgins and creoles was taking place since the first colonisation made up by Britain. No major British settlement in this part, though English was used as a lingua franca both among the indigenous population (hundreds of local languages) and between these people and the British traders; later on, English achieved an official status. Some pidgins and creoles (Krio in Sierra Leone, Cameroon Pidgin English), spoken by large numbers of people, especially as L2.
• East Africa: settlement following expeditions (David Livingstone); British protectorates or colonies are gathered in this territory. From the early 1960s, these countries became independent and English was set as an official language in Uganda (CV…) • In South Asia, we find the British India Company from the early 1600s. In 1835, English was introduced in the educational system (in English, for sure). Today, Hindi is set as the official language, whereas English is considered an ‘associate official language.’ Since the colony was practically Europeanisation, Indians undertook a process of Indianisation and so a developing of a distinctive national character.
• South-East Asia, East Asia and South Pacific: we can find seafaring expeditions by James Cook. In the case of Papua New Guinea, it was considered a British protectorate (1884-1929). You Pisin (expanded pidgin), one of the official languages; Singapore suffered an increase in the use of English, so a local variety has begun to emerge; Malaysia is suffering a decline in the use of english. After independence (1957) adoption of Bahasa Malaysia as the national language and medium of education. But English reintroduced in education from 2003; nowadays, learnt in Taiwan (CV…) What is a ‘New’ English? (Outer circle): learnt as a second language, or as one language within a wider multilingual repertoire of acquisition: e.g. Indian, Philippine, Nigerian, Singapore English. The latter, increasingly being spoken as a mother tongue.
There are four criteria to know what a new English is considered to be: 1. Developed through the education system. Taught as a subject and in many cases used as a medium of instruction in regions where languages other than English were the main languages.
2. Developed in an area where a native variety of English was not the language spoken by most of the population.
3. Used for a range of functions among those who speak or write in the region where it is used.
4. ‘Localised’ or ‘nativised’ by adopting some language features of its own (sounds, intonation patterns, sentence structures, words and expressions).
Five factors to consider when talking about the status of the norms: !24 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. The demographic factor: how many speakers of the ‘acrolect’ (standard variety) use the innovation? 2. The geographical factor: how widely dispersed is it? 3. The authoritative factor: where is it sanctioned? 4. Codification: does it appear in reference books (dictionaries, grammars)? 5. The acceptability factor: what is the attitudes of users and non-users towards it? Codification and acceptability are considered the most crucial factors. Without them, any innovation will be regarded as an error, rather than a legitimate form.
Phases of spread: 1. Spoken only by English-speaking colonisers from Britain and North America; 2. Setting up of schools, teaching English and other subject through English by native teachers; 3. As time went on, increase in the number of students. Recruitment of local non-native teachers; 4. Differences grew still more marked among the children who were taught by non-native speakers Levels of variation To be consider: pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary/idiom and discourse style. When learning foreign languages, we tend to learn a typical style from certain speakers or a very community of speakers of the target language. The different varieties are not internally uniform. Nevertheless, as with BrE, in the vast majority of cases, sufficient common ground is used to identify a particular national English (Nigerian, Indian, Kenyan, etc.) In the case of pronunciation, we must establish a difference between consonants and vowels: Consonants: - dental fricative /θ/, /ð/ (thin, this). Indian and West Indian /t/, /d/ ⇨ ‘tin,’ ‘dis.’ Lankan, Malaysian, Singapore, many African English, /tθ/, /dð/⇨ ’t-thin,’ ‘d-thin.’ Initial attempts to pronounce ‘correct’ L1 English sounds was later extended by L2 English-speaking teachers as classroom models.
Today, these particularities are regarded as local variants, in the process of being codified.
- /w/ > /v/, ‘wet’ = ‘vet’ (Lankan and some Indian Englishes) - /p, t, k/, without aspiration (Indian, Philippine, Malaysian). To Inner Circle speakers, more like /b, d, g/ ⇨ ‘pin,’ ‘tin,’ ‘cap’ = ‘bin,’ ‘din,’ ‘gap.’ - Final consonants, either unreleased or replaced with glottal stops: ‘cat’ /kæ/, or /kæʔ/ (Ghana, West Indian, colloquial Singaporean). also in some non-standard varieties of BrE (Estuary English and Cockney).
- RP word-final consonants: voiced>voiceless (Indian, West African, Papua New Guinean); ‘feed,’ ‘gave,’ ‘rob’ → ‘feet,’ ‘gafe,’ ‘rop.’ !25 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ - Clear and dark ‘l’ (‘lip,’ ‘pill’) not distinguished (most varieties).
More restricted: - /r/ = /l/ (Hong Kong, Singapore [Chinese origin], some East African Englishes); ‘red’ = ‘led.’ - /ʃ/ < /s/ (some East African Hong Kong [some speakers]; 'ship' > ‘sip') Vowel sounds: Variation in terms of vowel quality (close-open, front-back, spread-rounded) and vowel quantity (shortlong): - no (or minimal) difference /ɪ/ - /iː/: ‘sit’ ‘seat’ ⇨ /sɪt/ (many, e.g. Singapore). Often the same with /ʊ/-/ uː/ - RP /aː/ without length: ‘staff’ = ‘stuff’ (e.g. Lankan) - Word-final /ə/ > /ə/ ⇨ ‘matter /matə/ (e.g African Englishes) - Shortening and monophthongisation of diphthongs (Indian, Lankan, Malaysian and African): ‘take’ ⇨ /te˙k/, /tek/; Lankan ‘coat’ /kɔːt/ (more educated), /kɒt/ (=RP) - Syllable-timed, rare than stress-timed rhythm (most New Englishes). As a consequence, vowel reduction is not as common as in RP and in some of them [ə] is rare.
Grammar - They are nor very redundant, non-marking of plural forms: e.g. up to twelve year of schooling (India); and they know all four dialect (Jamaican); Pilipino is only one of the subject (Philippines); - specific/non-specific system (rather than definite/indefinite): non-specific (e.g. everyone has car India/ I’m not on scholarship - East Africa); specific (I’m staying in one house with three other India); - quantifiers (change of form): don’t eat so much sweets (Singapore); some few fishermen may be seen (West Africa); - pronouns (no distinction between 3s he and she): when I first met my husband, she was a student (East Africa); my mother, he live in Kampong (Malaysia); - word order (within the noun phrase): a two-hour exciting display (Ghana); Dis two last years (Papua New Guinea); ninety over cheques (Singapore/Malaysia); - Verbs: • limited marking of 3s present tense form: she drink[s] milk (Philippines); • limited marking for the past tense5: Mandarin, I learn[ed] it privately (Hong Kong); my wife she pass[ed] her Cambridge (Singapore); 5 Not only common in this variety of English, but also in EFL learners (Spanish learners especially).
!26 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • aspect system (action finished or still going on) rather than tense system (time when an action takes place):6 e.g. I still eat (=I am/was eating: Malaysian). When we use adverbs in order to temporarily frame the action, we are dealing with lexical features rather than tense. E.g. I have worked there in 1960 (Indian). In this last example, we can appreciate the choice of Present Perfect towards Past Simple; • be + verb + ing constructions for stative verbs: she is knowing her science very well (East African); Mohan is having two houses (Indian); • general or undifferentiated tag form: ‘is it?,’ ‘isn’t it?,’ ‘no?:’ e.g. Harriet will be home soon, isn’t it7? General Tag, seen as ‘non imposition;’ canonical tag, seen as assertive] Vocabulary Locally coined words/expressions When talking about vocabulary in these varieties, there is a tendency to be overlooked by speakers of Inner Circle varieties. Creativity is still often being classified as error.
a) Coinages by addition of a prefix or suffix to an existing (British or indigenous) word: spacy (Indian English ‘spacious’), heaty (Singapore/Malaysian for foods which make the body hot), teacheress (Indian ‘female teacher’), jeepney (Philippine ‘a small bus:’ army jeeps ⇒ busses); b) Compounding from English items (local concepts): peeled (Jamaican ‘a bald-headed person’) dry coffee (East African ‘coffee without milk and sugar’), dining leaf (Indian ‘banana, lotus or other leaf used as a plate’), high hat (Philippine ‘a snob’) Discourse style (introduction) New Englishes tend to be more formal in character than the Inner Circle Englishes. For instance, some Indian English features are logical extensions of BrE strategies: • would/could8 rather than can/will: i.e. we hope that you could join us • from more tentative to more polite forms (cp. BrE ‘could you open the door?’ rather than ‘can you open the door?’) Indian and African Englishes typically follow these patterns. Through influence of indigenous culture, expressions of thanks, deferential vocabulary and use of blessings, usually felt to be redundant or overdone by speakers of an Inner Circle English. For example, “I am bubbling with zeal and enthusiasm to serve as a research assistant” (Indian) 6 Relevant feature when considering contrastive studies as well as differences between traditional and new Englishes.
7 Instead of won’t she? Similar to Spanish construction ¿no? in a general sense and meaning.
8 Clearly, more formal form !27 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.2. New Englishes II: Pidgins and Creoles Historical context 3 types of English colonies (1 + 2 'settlement'; 3, 'exploitation'): 1) L1 speakers displaced the precolonial population (e.g. America, Australia) 2) more reduced colonial settlements maintained precolonial population and allowed a proportion of them access to learning English as a second or additional language (e.g. Nigeria) 3) precolonial population replaced by new labour from elsewhere, principally West Africa (e.g. Caribbean islands: Jamaica, Barbados) Third type > pidgins and creoles Pidgin: • a contact language, no native speakers • arising to fulfil restricted communication needs (basic transactions) between people who do not share a common language Initial stages: small vocabulary, little need of grammatical redundancy: Compare: the two big newspapers (los dos grandes periódicos) di tu big pepa (Cameroon English) Creole: Arising when the children of pidgin speakers use their parents’ pidgin language as the mother tongue (i.e., native speakers); expansion of vocabulary, increase in grammar complexity which make them capable of expressing the entire human experience of its mother tongue speakers. Nevertheless, cases of creole language that have developed in this way without any intervention from child L1 learners (e.g. Cameroon pidgin, some varieties of Tok Pisin).
Stages of creolisation: Commonly over one or two generations, but possibilities: TYPE 1 TYPE 2 TYPE 3 jargon jargon jargon ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ stabilised pidgin stabilised pidgin ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ expanded pidgin ↓ ↓ ↓ !28 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ TYPE 1 TYPE 2 TYPE 3 creole creole creole Type 1: Hawaiian creole English Type 2: Torres Straits Broken (Queensland and South-Western Coastal Papua) Type 3: New Guinea Tok Pisin Decreolisation: When a creole comes into extensive contact with the dominant language (e.g. AAVE=Ebonics). It leads to a possibility for a decreolised creole of moving back toward the creole: e.g. London Jamaican (among younger speakers). These speakers tend to speak in a more basic structure than that of their parents.
Origin of terms ‘pidgin’ and ‘creole’ ‘Pidgin’ is thought to come out from Chinese corruption of English ‘business’ or of Portuguese ocupaçao.
In the case of ‘creole’ scholars agree that the most reasonable origin is from Portuguese crioulo (diminutive derived from criar), and African slave born in the New World (Brazil).
These points are of rich interest in English Studies since scholars attempt to explain a significant fact for both pidgin and creole. In spite of differences, European-based pidgins and creoles show similarities. As a result, there are three groups: a) single origin (monogenesis); b) independent origin (polygenesis); c) deriving from universal strategies.
a) Polygenetic theories 1 The independent parallel development theory • Common linguistic ancestor: European languages, hence Indo-European origin; • In Atlantic pidgins, additionally West African languages; • Developed in similar ….
2 The nautical jargon theory Sailors on European ship carrying speakers from different language backgrounds ended up in the creation of a lingua franca which was later on passed on African and Asian peoples with whom they came into contact. This nautical jargon was the nucleus for the various pidgins which were subsequently expanded in line with their learners’ mother tongues. Indicated evidence by means of several nautical words common to different pidgins.
!29 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ b) Monogenetic theory 3 The theory of monogenesis and relexification It is an ultimate derivation from one porto-pidgin source, a Portuguese pidgin in fact, which is used in the world’s trade routes during the 15th and 16th c. In turn, this derived from Sabir, an earlier lingua franca used by the crusaders and traders in the Mediterranean in the M.A. Sabir was relexified by Portuguese in the 15th c. After sailing along the coast of West Africa, it became the first European language acquired by the indigenous population. Portuguese suffered a subsequent decrease of Portuguese due to the influence and increase of the influence of other dominant languages: English, Spanish, French, Dutch. The evidence lies on the many lexicon and syntactic similarities between Portuguese-based and other European-based pidgins and creoles, e.g. ‘sav,’ ‘sabi’ (Por. ‘saber’), ‘pikin,’ ‘pikinini’ (Por. ‘pequeno’).
c) Universal 4 The baby-talk theory Similarities between forms of certain pidgins and early speech of children such as: large proportion of content words, lack of structural words, lack of morphological change and approximation of the standard pronunciation. This very old term ‘foreigner talk’ tries to describe the way a native speaker of a language when addressing L2 speakers. The strategies used by the speaker of the dominant language of simplifying as much as possible is the basis for this simplified version of the language.
5 A synthesis (Loreto Todd Pidgins and Creoles, 1990) She takes the baby-talk theory in an initial state and is extended to an universal pattern of linguistic behaviour in contact situations. This contact is always a crucial fact in terms of debates. She indicates some cases of simplification processes by L1 speakers in: children learning their L1, adults learning an L2 and, even in very familiar situation, ellipsis by proficient speakers (informal: ‘got a light?’). Besides, this informal situation is not the only one in which certain processes of simplification are found, but also in the redundancy reduction when communication of the message is more critical than the quality of the language used. Languages are simplified in similar ways because all languages have a simple register. In addition, Loreto states that L1 children feel the pressure to conform to the adult version of the language; children of pidgin speakers did not have this possibility because there were no speakers of the non-simple register available to provide input.
Characteristics of Pidgin and Creole Lexis Generally, drawn from the dominant language, the lexifier language: a) Lengthier ways of codification (analytic means): Tok Pisin ‘bilong’ (<belong): ‘of;’ papa bilong mi (my father).
!30 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ b) Reduplication: partly to intensify meaning (Tok Pisin-tok—‘talk’—toktok—‘chatter’//look—‘look’— looklook—‘stare’); partly to avoid confusions resulting from homophones (Pacific pidgins: sip —‘ship’—sipsip—‘sheep’// pis—‘peace’—pispis—‘urinate’; Atlantic pidgins: was—‘watch’— waswas—‘wash’).
Pronunciation Fewer sounds than those of the corresponding standard language (both pidgins and creoles): • Vowels: Tok Pisin is made up of 5, whereas most Caribbean creole speakers show 12 (GAm-17/RP-20) • Consonants: a) Simplification of consonant clusters friend > fren cold > col salt > sol b) Conflation: most Caribbean creoles /t/≡ /θ/; /d/≡ /ð/; /ð/≡ /ʃ/ Tok Pisin also /f/ ≡/p/; /s/≡/ʃ/≡/tʃ/ Grammar a) Few inflections9 in nouns, pronouns, verbs and adjectives (especially in pidgin phrases): - nouns are not marked for number of gender (context when needed singular or plural); - verbs have no tense markers (need of other resources to make reference to tense), these varieties need other kind of periphrastic context in order to get the tense; - pronouns are not distinguished for case: ‘me’ —> ‘I’ and ‘me.’ E.g. Tok Pisin (Melanesian), inclusive and non-inclusive ‘we’: yumi (inclusive we > addressee and speaker); mepela (‘me’ + A resumpAve pronoun is a p e r s o n a l p r o n o u n appearing in a rela4ve clause, which restates the antecedent a=er a pause or interrup4on (such as an embedded clause, series of adjec4ves, or a wh-island). 1. This is the girli that whenever it rains she i ‘fellow’) this is non-inclusive > speaker and others, but not the addressee.
• Attributive adjectives describing people and things, like the suffix ‘fela’/ ‘pela;’ naispela haus meaning ‘nice house;’ gutpela meri meaning ‘good woman’ (meri<‘Mary’→’woman’).
b) Negation: simple negative particle, often ‘no:’ Krio (Sierra Leone) I no tu had (It’s not too hard); 9 Modification in which the category is meant by means of different shape of the word.
!31 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ c) Prepositions: reduced system: Tok Pisin bilong (<belong): of, for/ long (<along) → all other relationships (in, on, from, etc.).
d) Uncomplicated clause structure: no embedded clauses, e.g. relative clauses, so we find a case of parataxis10 (either with coordination or juxtaposition).
Development into creoles. 4 types of change: 1) People begin to speak them much faster. Processes of assimilation and reduction (examples from Tok Pisin): man bilong mi > mamblomi (my husband) 2) Expansion of vocabulary: a) new shorter words formed alongside phrases: paitman > man bilong pait (fighter). Eventually, the longer expression dies out.
b) development of word-building capacity (synthetic means): suffix ‘-im’ for deadjectival verbs: big (big, large) ⇒ bikim (to enlarge); brain (wide) ⇒ braitim (to widen); also used for transitive verbs: yu pinisim stori nau (finish your story now!).
c) borrowing of technical words from standard English.
3) Development of a tense and aspectual system in verbs (analytic means): ‘bin’ (<been) + verb past tense e.g. Na praim minista i bin tok olsem (and the prime minister spoke to us) bi’ (<be) or ‘bai’ (<by and by) + verb future tense verb + ‘i stap' progressive aspect pinis’ (< ﬁnish) perfec4ve (comple4ve) aspect) 4) Development of greater sentence complexity (e.g. formation of relative clauses) Social functions Unlike original pidgins, extended pidgins and creoles are, or can easily become capable of expressing all the needs of their speakers. Used in: literature, education, mass media, advertising, the Bible, etc.
exercise: NEWSPAPER ARTICLE IN TOK PISIN: OL MERI GAT BIKPELA Below you will ﬁnd three versions of a news item from a Papua New Guinean newspaper (Wantok, April 1994). The ﬁrst (A) is the original version in Tok Pisin, the second (B) is a verbaAm English version and the third (C) is a BriAsh English version. 10 Have a look at Discourse and Text handouts.
!32 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Read the original version (A). Before you go on to compare it with the verbaAm and BriAsh English versions (which will be shown in a later, complete ver sion), see how much of the text you can understand, and make a list of any features of lexis, grammar and (by implicaAon) pronunciaAon that ﬁt into the categories described in class. A) Ol meri gat bikpela wari yet Helt na envairomen em bikpela samAng ol meri long kantri tude i gat bikpela wari long en. Bikos dispela tupela someAng i save kamap strong long sindaun na laip bilong famili na komyuniA insait long ol ples na kantri. Long dispela wik, moa long 40 meri bilong Milen Be provins i bung long wanpela worksop long Alotau bilong toktok long hevi bilong helt na envairomen long ol liklik ailan na provins. Bung i bin stat long Mande na bais pinis long Fraide, Epril 22. Ol opisa bilong Melanesin Envairomen Faundesen wantaim nesenel na provinsal helt opis i stap tu bilong givim toktok insait long dispela worksop. 1) Absence of the schwa; 2) “ol” which may stem from “or;” 3) consonants like /θ/ turn to /t/: “health” > “helt;” 4) “provins” or “helt” are closer spellings to pronunciaAon (not signiﬁcant according to the lecturer); 5) “opisa” stems from “oﬃcer;” 6) “laip” > bilabial stops turn to fricaAves, i.e., “laip" > “life;” 7) “insait” > inside; 8) “pela” systemaAc funcAon as adjecAve; 9) reduplicaAon in a simple way “toktok,” “liklik;” 10) past tenses indicated like in “bin;” 11) “long” as preposiAon; 12) use of “meri” as “women;” 13) This text shows less redundancy than English, for instance. B) All women got big-fellow worry yet Health and environment him all big-fellow something all woman along country today he got big-fellow worry along him. !33 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Because this-fellow two-fellow something he know come-up strong along sit-down and life belong family and community inside along all place and country. Along this-fellow week, more along 40 woman belong Milne Bay Province he meet along one-fellow workshop along Alotau belong talk- talk along belong health and environment along all ligle island and province. MeeAng he been start along Monday and bye (-and-bye) ﬁnish along Friday April 22. All oﬃcer belong Melanesian Environment FoundaAons one-Ame naAonal and provincial health oﬃce he stop too belong give-him talk-talk inside along this-fellow workshop. C) Women sAll have big worries Health and environment are two of the major things about which women in the country today show a great deal of concern. Because these two things ohen have a strong eﬀect on the situaAon and life of families and communiAes within villages and in the country. This week, more than 40 women from Milne Bay Province are meeAng in a workshop at Alotau in order to talk about the diﬃculAes of health and environment in the small islands and provinces. The meeAng began on Monday and will ﬁnish on Friday April 22. The oﬃcers of the Melanesian Environment FoundaAon together with the naAonal and provincial health oﬃce are there too in order to give talks in the workshop. !34 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.3 New Englishes III: Pragmatics and discourse Thus far, structural differences between New Englishes and metropolitan varieties. Additionally, considerable differences between New Englishes may be found when taking into account functions of a certain linguistic structure. Moreover, similar structures to those present in Standard English may serve a different function. It is necessary to understand these pragmatic functions in connection with local meanings, local thought patterns and local sociocultural practices ("Grammar of culture”).
Syntactic forms: 1) Tag questions Standard English: • appropriate modal auxiliary + pronoun (Subject): John said he didn't read the novel, didn't he? • 'invariant tags': isn't that so? / don't you think? Pragmatic functions of tag questions: • Politeness: - informational (rising pitch) - confirmatory (falling pitch) • Impoliteness: - punctuation tag (for emphasis) - peremptory tag (to end a discussion) - aggressive tag (low tone).
Indian English: 2 syntactic variants (not so much prosodic) 1) canonical tag (= St. Eng.) 2) undifferentiated tag (especially in informal contexts) • Governed by the politeness principle of non-imposition ("grammar of culture") Unasser4ve/Mi4gated (informal) Asser4ve/Intensiﬁed (Standard) You said you'll do the job, isn't it? He said he will be there, isn't it? You said you'll do the job, didn't you? He said they will be there, didn't he? Undifferentiated tags, common in New Englishes e.gr. colloquial Singapore English: isn't it? / is it? • In most of the varieties, a reflex of language transfer from the native languages (substratum influence). In most cases, tags in local native languages • West African English transferred tags is not, lexicalised as is it or isn't it.
isn't it, not, no (Yoruba) • In some other cases, more direct transfer, the tag being inserted from the native language (code-mixing).
2) Auxiliaries • Auxiliaries may serve new or additional pragmatic functions.
• Indian English: may to express positive politeness.
• Obligation: These mistakes may please be corrected (’Standard’ Indian) v.s. These mistakes should be corrected (British English) !35 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Black South African English: May you please give me a lift to town? ('Could you please...') • Singapore English: would as a tentativeness marker I will help you, but I am not sure if my brother would - will in main clause, within the control of the speaker; - would in subordinate clause, outside of that control (irrealis aspect) • Indian South African English Q. When is the election taking place? A. I wouldn't know (I don't know / I couldn't tell you) Discourse particles • Standard English: so, of course, actually, anyway, etc.
• Meta-pragmatic function: to guide the hearer's interpretation process • Some evidence of their relatively restricted use in New Englishes • Variety specific particles (innovations): 1) La (Singaporean English) • Interactional acts: requests, invitations, promises, suggestions, etc.
• Present when there is an element of solidarity among the interlocutors, absent when there is a power asymmetry among the participants or in most formal contexts of speech and writing.
• Generally contributing an attitude of persuasion to the utterance.
Degrees of assertiveness depending on pitch heights: • low: impositional (highest degree, most frequent) Daughter : How can I let you read my diary? It's private! Mother: Can, la. I'm your own mother • mid-rising: persuasive (intermediate) I cannot do it, la. I really cannot • high-falling: giving advice / presenting and idea / conveying obviousness A. He's got kidney problem and carries a bag around B. So he cannot go anywhere, la.
2) What [or wut ] (Singaporean English) • Low-falling tone, carrying a meaning of objection. Maximally assertive contexts. Invalidating a previous implication or assumption A. Why didn't you come in? B. You told me to wait here, what 3) Only (Indian English) • Phrase- or clause-final only. To mark focus.
• Focus: 'new', non-presupposed information. The rest of the sentence is presupposed, i.e. information that is shared by the speaker and the listener.
!36 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Focusing strategies in Standard English: nuclear stress in order to signal the new information A. When does he work? B. He works on Thursdays and Fridays • Indian English: no nuclear stress. Instead, pragmatic particle only immediately following the constituent to be emphasised / focused A. When does he work? B. He works on Thursdays and Fridays only.
[= cleft sentence in St. Eng.: It is only Thursdays and Fridays that he works] • When old information needs to be focused, again no prosodic means, but pragmatic only A. Why didn't you ask your teacher to show you how to write an essay? B. She only told us to write like this.
Discourse It is the cultural context and not the English language which sets specific conditions to the ways of encoding interactions and leads to different discourse patterns.
• Address forms. More direct (First name: 'Call me Tom'), less direct (Family name) in business interaction between e.g. American and Chinese speakers. Embarrassment (and possible conflict).
• Second-language writing: - Academic / expository Straight linear structure of expository writing in English (mainly through American influence): a) Introduction: thesis statement, claims and background information b) Body: elaboration of the initial thesis statement or supporting evidence of the claim c) Conclusion • The writing conventions in ESL contexts do not commonly follow this monolithic structure.
• Great variation: writers use different stylistic and discoursal conventions, deriving from: - context of new linguistic and cultural paradigms - transfer of pragmatic norms from original languages and cultures As a result, multinorms of styles and strategies • Expository writing in Indian English is unique: a) it allows for an affective style b) it lacks a straight linear progression of thought c) it involves a high level of tolerance for structural diversity and digressions d) it shows transfer of pragmatic-discoursal norms from local languages.
o Persuasive • Different patterns of communication in applications in events that lack face-to-face interaction.
• A case: applications for admission to graduate programmes in the United States, written in English by students from all over the world.
!37 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Contrast: strategies for politeness that applicants choose to adopt between themselves and whoever they perceive their addressee to be.
a) Asian students ⟹ deferential strategies of politeness: ... 'your respected university' ... be part of 'your distinguished graduate program' ... to study in 'your outstanding faculty.’ b) Non-Asians students ⇒ non-deferential strategies: 'Given my background, experience, and interest, I do believe myself to be the ideal candidate' 'The reasonable prices and good atmosphere in [state] encouraged me to apply at your University' ❖ Other areas of study: - New English literature - Style shifting and code-switching • Different pragmatic functions: new articulations of identity, values, power and solidarity.
5.4. New Englishes IV: Language contact and SLA Acquisition of New Englishes (NEs), a class within the (wider) field of language contact. For some scholars, obvious overlaps with Creoles To be determined: the role and nature of: • the superstrate languages (superstratum influence) • the substrate languages (substratum influence) Possibility of 'universals' of language contact. On the other hand, unlike most contact varieties, New Englishes are commonly the products of educational systems. Second Language Acquisition (SLA), relevant: SLA 'Interlanguage' in SLA: the developing competence of speakers of an L2 Frequently, a system which is different from corresponding L1 and the target language (TL) ⇒ English in our case Not qualitatively different from L1 acquisition In the SLA context (i.e., non-native people learning the language in the metropolis), an individual competence, not a group phenomenon ⇒ not a new language (not a contact language) Outside the metropolis ⇒ New English varieties. Interlanguages are used among groups of people in certain domains (in many cases, a language-shift process) New structural, lexical and pragmatic norms stabilise (or ‘fossilise' ⇒ not forming part of the TL) !38 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Unlike typical Creoles, ESLs are introduced via an educational system and are mutually intelligible with the superstate. Nevertheless, as most ESLs countries are multiethnic and multilingual (…) (slice 4) Several schools of linguistics with different approaches: One approach: cognitivists ⇒ processing the TL. Studies aiming to account for attested similarities across New Englishes in terms of production principles, i.e. a set of psycholinguistic strategies involved in learning and using an L2 under specific social conditions.
Qualitatively similar to L1 acquisition: the needs and constraints of listener and speaker determine the structure of language.
Set of operating principles, with a constant competition between demands for explicitness and demands for economy in language. This need for economy plays a highly important role in language.
This economy of production is clearly seen in early SLA and lower sociolects amongst NEs. Common factors like omission of pronouns, lack of verb and noun endings, variable deletion of the copula, of articles, etc. are developed in this economical linguistic development. There is more economical production but a more difficult processing, since it must rely on contextual factors.
This principle is in competition with: • hyper-clarity (reduction of ambiguity). In this case, the needs of the listener are now satisfied in a higher degree. We can find two dimensions: maximum transparency (it is achieved when there is oneto-one mapping of form and meaning/function, replacing opaque markers of meaning by more transparent ones. E.g. lexicalisation of various elements of meaning; perfective aspect in TL11 : have + p.p.12 replaced by before, finish, already + unmarked/uninflected verb); maximum salience13 (an increase in stress or duration of some linguistic form or the use of an extra morpheme; presence of redundancy, absent in the TL; e.g. a) resumptive pronouns in relative clauses like in EAf, WAf Eng the guest who I have invited them have arrived; b) double marking of semantic relationships like contrast in IndEng though the farmer works hard, but14 he cannot produce enough).
Contact and transmission Language contact, part of the field of Bilingualism (or Multilingualism) Distinction: 11 Target Language 12 Discontinuous, no one-to-one mapping.
14 Both though and but bear a similar meaning, so it is kind of redundant.
!39 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ a) Borrowing: adoption of a new word from another language. Usually, under conditions of language maintenance; b) Substratum interference: associated to language shift. A community adopts a TL to the detriment of its own without replicating all of the TL rules.
Vocabulary, mastered relatively early, phonology and syntax are areas more susceptible to interference. A prototypical contact language is a pidgin.
For sure, there are degrees of contact: shift with ‘normal’ vs ‘abnormal’ transmission. A ‘normal’ transmission occurs when the shifting speakers acquire the bulk of TL grammatical structures along with the TL vocabulary. Even when there are significant grammatical changes, recognisable as a a version of the original TL (a social dialect). 'Abnormal' transmission: shifting speakers acquire (very) few of the TL grammatical structures. A new language system has been formed: a Creole They are traditionally considered as quite different, but not completely.
Counterarguments: a) SLA gives you a second language, creolisation a first.
• Not all cases of creolisation are one-generation phenomena. Gradualness, more typical (two generations at least); • NEs may become first languages by processes of language shift. Cases of Indian South African English and at present, in Singapore some children are growing up monolingual. Not abrupt shifts, but not very gradual, either.
b) SLA is done alone, creolisation in groups.
• Even SLA is a cohesive process, involving a community.
c) SLA is done by adults, creolisation by children.
• The instantaneous view (‘from pidgin of adults to Creole of Children’) is rejected today; • Tok Pisin’s evolution into a Creole is a gradual one and it involves participation of children and adults.
d) SLA involves a ‘normal’ linguistic background, unlike creolisation.
• Not an abrupt process with minimal contacts with superstate speakers.
• Recent research: some African languages did survive in the America; moreover, not all Creoles were preceded by a pidgin.
e) SLA has a target, creolisation does not.
• Generally true. Slaves in the colonial plantation era, more concerned with communication than mastery of a TL.
• But the fact is that most of the vocabulary of the Creoles tends to be from the superstate colonial languages.
!40 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Both early SLA and early pidgins rely on similar strategies (lexical rather than syntactic means).
• Some NEs are socially complex, involving a multilingual population.
- Singapore: varieties of Chinese, Malay and Tamil (movement of labour under British colonisation).
- IndSAf Eng: dialects belonging to two language families, Indic and Dravidian (not mutually intelligible).
• NEs and Creoles are prototypically different in their social circumstances and linguistic forms. In some cases they show special social and multilingual conditions. Nevertheless, an approach relating SLA and Creolistics may be fruitful by establishing similarities in structural characteristics. They may be related to universal strategies in the evolution of these varieties.
Historical retentions in NEs Commonly, tendency to compare many NEs with Standard British English as superstate. But from the historical point of view we have to bear in mind: a) Standard English of the period of exploration, trade and colonisation was slightly different from English in the 20th and 21st centuries.
b) Standard English was not the only input in the formation of NEs.
The superstrate was shaped by sailors, soldiers, missionaries, adventurers, settlers, plantation owners, schoolteachers, etc.
Archaic Standard English Early Modern Standard English (16th to 18th c.) is the precedent of our Standard PdE. Structures: 1) unstressed (unemphatic) do: … the King did anoint the Generall with rich oinment.
2) for + to infinitives: a Billet is a piece of… Wood for to Burn.
3) Dative of advantage: I got me a servant.
4) You was for singular, you were for plural (18th c.) Some of these structures may have stabilised in one or other WE.
Regional English of settlers At the time of colonisation, people leaving Britain were largely from the working class, commonly unfamiliar with the practice of writing. Features: a) Omissions in grammar - determiners: this was 0 matter of fact; prepositions after verbs: he promised him 0 leave… possessive ’s: on hearing of your Lordship0 design… -s in 3s person singular verbs !41 Varieties of English Daniel Antón Pacheco ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ b) Variable non-standard morphosyntactic forms: - double negation is, was with plural subjects, sing. you was -s in verbs with a plural subject plural endings for non-count nouns: progresses, hopes c) Constructions lost in Settler English but retained in a NE Dative of advantage (or ethical dative) Sailors It is considered a sociolect. We must bear in mind that many of the sailors and some captains were illiterate.
- present tense marking, forms of be, past tense form for weak and strong verbs, a- prefixing with participles.
Missionaries They were the introducers of Western education. Assumption: they were speakers of standard English.
Not always they were proper speakers, like in the cases of Cape Colony (South Africa). Missionary and army activity preceded the arrival of British civilian element. For some missionaries, this work was a source of employment in their search for a better life overseas. A surprising number of the, continental Europeans with little knowledge of English, or working class L1 English speakers with little familiarity with conventions of literacy and standard English.
Soldiers Their role in the dissemination of English is to be studied. In some cases, discharged soldiers were employed as teachers (East Africa). In the Indian Army, battalions consisting of Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims from various regions and involved in the initial conquests that led to the colonisation of adjacent Asian territories.
Teachers Indian English was considered as an important intermediary of the superstrate. India often supplied teachers of English when new Asian colonies were established: Sri Lanka, etc.
Present day: Indian teachers in the Middle East and north-east Africa. Indian South African English with features likely to have come from India, e.g. alphabets.