PLATO (2014)Apunte Inglés
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1-For Plato, Socrates was a master, a great soul.
! -What makes great a person? ! Greatness depends on the fact that a person lives according to truth: He doesn’t speak truth, but ! he lives according to truth.
2-Thanks to Socrates, Plato made the experience of what is true, therefore Plato will never forget Socrates: Truth cannot be forgotten. When we experience something that is really true, we will never be able to forget it.
! *Truth is what never disappears of our lives: TRUTH HAS THE SENSE OF ETERNITY, it lives ! forever.
*A master is the one who has a big impact on us and our lives: There’s a big difference between a master and a professor.
3-Thanks to Socrates, Plato could understand a very simple and essential thing that is: Men are not equal -- There are ordinary people and there are extraordinary people.
*There are lives with an incredible intensity, passionate lives, lives sustained by the need of truth, ! live that doesn’t accept anything without a reason.
! Then, there are lives that are not concerned about truth (ordinary live).
3 books: “The Republic”, “The Statesmen” and “The laws”.
*Politeia (The Republic) meant the constitution. It had to face the problem of the political organization of the city and the society.
! -Politeia about justice dialogue: What is justice? THE REPUBLIC.
Plato says that human beings are not equal.
! -It has to do with their long experience (important experience).
Plato was on the opposite place of Descartes (He said the problem was how we use intelligence; the question is the method -- There are some people that can use intelligence very well, and there are some people that cannot use it well).
! Descartes says: We are all equal, the problem is the method.
What is intelligence? Something hidden, something that we cannot think and that we read inside.
An intelligent person is that one who can read something that is not visible.
WHAT IS HUMAN BEING? Human being are equal or not? Rights are universal, rights are equal for everybody.
! DESCARTES SAID: The way we use reason makes the difference: There are people who doesn’t know how to use this reason.
POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY METHOD: Is essential.
! -The attention is part of the method.
! -How to use our reason? ! -We all are equal, we all can understand things: We need to train.
! ! PLATO SAYS: We are different, differences that we are not able to change: we have to accept and get adapted to this.
-There is people that wants to live to the highest expression of culture, that wouldn’t accept what it’s not excellent.
! -After this experience we will never be able to forget about it.
! *The experience of truth is unforgettable.
There are different ways of living: ! 1-One way of living attached to material things.
! 2-One way of living characterized by the indifference of these values.
There are people who live according to truth.
There is a parallelism of different kind of man and different kind of cities.
! -Harmonious cities // Chaotical cities.
Understanding human being is a condition to understanding the different way of ruling a city (political life).
HEALTHY person is a person that takes care of himself -- HEALTH IS OUR RESPONSIBILITY.
A polis can be healthy or not: We have to take care preventing illnesses and defending/promoting a lifestyle. Not everybody is wise enough to distinguish what is advisable or what is not advisable.
Therefore, democracy is so bad for cities: Everybody thinks to know what’s good or what’s wrong.
WHAT IS JUSTICE? It’s not a result of improvisation: we need years of discussion about what is fair or what is not, what is correct or what is not -- We need intelligence to understand what is justice.
We need to work very hard to understand this field.
Opinions are not interesting.
ACADEMIA: A kind of university.
! -Not everybody will be accepted.
! -Conditions to be members of the academia: The first 2 years the person doesn’t have the right to ! make questions or express their opinions.
! -The first step to intelligence is to formulate a question.
People who are able to understand that first we have to listen for a long time.
POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY THE REPUBLIC.
WHAT’S JUSTICE? 1-The art which gives good to friends and evil to enemies.
! ! ! ! ! *We love and we hate. We have friends and we have enemies -- It’s the law (our nature) -What is natural is loving and hating.
*My group will protect me from the agressivity from the other.
This kind of justice is based on a balance of terror: Protect my people and harm other people.
! *Structure of a mafia.
! ! ! ! ! NATURE - What is impossible to be changed: We have to get adapted.
*You cannot change nature.
-Justice is a technique - How to deal with it: The knowledge is not important, what matters is the ! way we deal with good and evil.
1.It is natural that the strongest have the power, not the weakest -- That’s the nature.
! ! It’s gonna be always that way, we won’t be able to change this.
! *It is natural that the law protects the interests of the strongest.
According to Socrates, law was the condition of the polis -- Acting according to the law means acting according to the nature.
! *Who has power? The one who can transform his will in law.
! 2.Law is the expression of power, not the expression of reason.
! 3.Justice is a convention: Justice can change, the content of a law can change because of the ! interests of the one in power.
! ! -According to our interests we change the laws.
-The just is always a loser in comparison with the unjust.
! *They will never have power, they will never be rich...
! Socrates is a dreamer: we have to be good, we must have compassion...
! Metaphysical ideas are just a fantasy.
-The life of the just is the most advantageous.
1.Glauco’s conception of justice.
! 1-NATURE AND ORIGIN OF JUSTICE.
! -It’s much better to show compassion than to be cruel.
! -We think that our life must be inspired in our moral values.
! Why do we think that being compassive is better than be cruel? ! POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY ! There are 2 kinds of people ! ! 1-Those who cannot enjoy life: ugly, poor, weak, not healthy, etc.
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! *Most of the people belongs to this group.
2-Those who are adapted to enjoy life: They’re not worried for the ethical values. The beautiful, the rich, the strong...
! *Just an elite belongs to this group.
-Most of the people are scared, they fear, they feel not sure, because the ones in the second ! ! ! ! ! ! group can use violence whenever they want.
! -Moral/ethical values are values invented by the weak in order to satisfy their interests.
! ! *They persuade the stronger to give up the nature of principles.
Glauco thinks that ethical principles is a way of decadence: Is denying what is real, what is beautiful, the power. (What Nietzsche understood as the Superman).
! Ethics and metaphysics are created by the weak in order to defend themselves from the ! strongest -- Revolt of the weak (revenge).
! 2-JUSTICE AS A NECESSITY, BUT NOT AS A GOOD.
! -We are not interested on being just: We are afraid of the consequences of being unjust.
! -We are not interested in respecting the law -- Acting according to the justice is against our ! ! ! ! ! ! nature.
! WE ARE UNJUST BY NATURE.
! The only way of controlling this nature is by justice: It represses our nature.
! ! *Justice will never make us happy.
-Education cannot change our nature so it must be focused on technic matters.
! ! ! ! JUSTICE IS A CONVENTION: It depends on the interests of the strongest.
The only reality is EGOISM and SELFISHNESS: Nature is based on selfishness.
! *We are selfish by nature, everyone acts according to its interest.
WE DON’T LOVE JUSTICE, ORDER OR LAW -- We fear the consequences of breaking the law.
! ! *We don’t want to suffer the consequences of breaking the law -- If we weren’t afraid, we would ! ! break the law at the first opportunity.