SOCRATES (2014)Apunte Inglés
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Are we really what we can’t stop being?
According to Greek mentality = If something finishes, disappears, it’s not really true.
! *If we stop loving someone, it’s because we really didn’t love him -- It wasn’t meant to be.
The possibility of falling again to the barbarian way of living it’s always possible = Violence ! *In 1914 European countries started a World War using violence (Barbarian ways).
! --If this is possible, then, falling to barbarian ways of living it’s possible too.
SOCRATES says this security it’s the most important danger: To forget that the barbarian way of life it’s always possible.
-He was the 1st one to express the importance of education. -- He wanted to keep education alive to prevent violence, to prevent a barbarian way, dictation, etc. --- He preferred dying than to break the law.
He suggested new ways of living (although he was conservative) RATIONALISM: The use of reason.
! *Most important fundament of our political life, our being together.
! ! -Tradition was the most important thing until now. Socrates says that tradition sometimes is not ! ! reasonable.
! ! ! ! ! ! Example: Man and women were separated at school. Women couldn’t go to University, only ! man could.
*Human life must be constantly under the exam of rationalism. -- We always must take into consideration what we do.
! -Tradition is not always based on human values.
! ! ! ! ! Acting according to reason requires a self examination.
AUTHENTICAL LIFE: Based on self examination.
! When we choose tradition for our lives, we are choosing -- Mimesis: I do this because the other ! do this. -- Following the majority.
! -When we act according to reason we need to have courage to face solitude, isolation, violence, ! ! death.
! ! *It’s impossible to be reasonable and to have fear. -- When I feel fear, I am a slave.
! ! ! -The one who has fear is a slave.
FREEDOM = TO GET RID OF FEAR.
! Those who have power want to provoke fear -- We give power the energy to be power.
! We need only power when there’s something that’s not acting reasonable.
! ! *It’s impossible to be free and to be a coward.
COURAGE: Something that has to be educated -- Courage is a practice exercise.
! *A slave is always ready to a compromise (I will accept anything, although it’s against my ! ! principles). -- Citizens should have principles.
! To be COWARD is the most important obstacle to philosophy. -- Courage is necessary to reach ! the level of HUMAN DIGNITY.
! FREEDOM is an EXCEPTION -- Many people are not interested in freedom.
POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY ! ! Human history is history of power -- History is made by slaves, and Socrates wants to change ! ! this -- He suggests some changes: courage, principles, reason, etc.
! ! *He wants the history of reason, the history of ideas.
WHY FREEDOM IS SUPPOSED TO BE WORTH LIVING? ! The civilized life makes possible human happiness.
! ! Barbarian happiness -- VICTORY (The defeat of the enemy).
! ! *My happiness has to do with the unhappiness / suffer from the other.
DEMOCRACY was a sign of decadence.
! He had a different conception of democracy than the actual one.
! *It was one of the worst of the ways to organize the polis. --- Conception of POWER.
Democracy = The way to rule the city that social majority decides. Social majority decides who’s going to rule the city in the future.
-Socrates thought that the majority was manipulated: Shape majority.
! Ex. Hitler and Franco had the support of the majority, but in fact, they didn’t had the majority ! respect.
For us the democracy is the commitment to respect the minority.
! During the 2nd World War, Europe was really close to destroy the democracy.
We are for democracy because it’s a commitment of freedom, equality and human rights.
It’s almost impossible to accept a different way of living that it’s not democracy nowadays in Europe because of our history (II World War).
SOCRATES WAS NOT A DEMOCRAT.
META PHYSICAL = Beyond nature -- It starts with politics (logos).
Democracy gives the right to decide to everybody and that’s wrong according to Socrates.
! *Socrates realized that most of the people wasn’t interested on being reasonable.
The question is: To be or not to be.
*Are the values that rule the polis real, or just an opinion? ! REAL -- To be = think.
! *To know something means to know the truth. You may think you know the truth, but in fact you ! don’t.
! IF METAPHYSICAL VALUES ARE NOT TRUE, WE CANNOT THINK (We believe we are thinking ! but in fact we are not) = WE ARE NOT THINKING, WE ARE JUST EXPRESSING OUR ! OPINIONS.
Do values have an identity? Everyone has its opinion -- Justice means something or it depends on the definition about everybody? Ex. BEAUTY: Everyone has his conception about beauty, what’s beauty for me, maybe it’s not beauty for you.
POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY THE KEY QUESTION: TO BE OR NOT TO BE.
Is justice really something, or can everyone give their opinion of what’s justice? How do we know what is beauty? How to know what is right and what is wrong? How to say what is justice or what is injustice? Beauty is what reveals truth // Truth is identity.
! Truth is beautiful: Geometry, safety, temporality, eternity, purity, etc.
-We cannot say beauty is what I like.
Harmony, geometry, eternity (etc) it’s beautiful -- Beauty is the sense of eternity.
*We must search for harmony.
If there is justice, we can THINK about it -- Only if we are able to think, we are able to speak.
LANGUAGE CAN ONLY SPEAK TRUTH.
Thinking is trying to understand what is truth.
What happens with language? Language becomes a tool to control the society if there is no truth: A tool to control people.
That’s why rhetoric is so important in democracy: Not to tell the truth, but to control people.
DEMOCRACY IS THE POLITICAL REGIME FOR THE SOCIETY THAT DON’T BELIEVE IN THE IDENTITY OF THE WORDS.
In a democracy we are not interested anymore in truth, therefore we ask for our opinions.
! -We don’t ask what really matters.
Who has the power means who has the majority.