Radio part 3 (2016)Apunte Inglés
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3)Stations & formats
Vast majority stations adopt a particular format, an overall style and range of programming -->
standardization and predictability.
Format = style.
-Stylistic framework: package of jingles; type of music played, package of scripted 'liner's spoken by presenter to identify the sstation, the same fixed points on the 'clock' in terms of news, travel info and adbreaks, tis logo, kind of competitions run.
-The format, in part defined by style, is in truth very much more concerned with content.
- Is which organization for which type of content.
-Once a station decides on the format it will broadcast, it then must know how to effectively execute it (shceduling) - [Types of radio stations] [Scheduling/Programming] -Formats/models in the US/UK and Spain: Some of the most frequently employed formats in US (Keith): -Adult contemporary (AC), country, rock and alternative (initially called Album Oriented Rock AOR), News, talks, sports, urban contemporary (melting pot), Religious/Christian, Contemporary Hit Radio (CHR), Easy listening/Smooth jazz, Classic/Oldies/Nostalgia, Ethnic (Black and Hispanic), classical.
Full service (Variety, General appeal, Diversified...).
Niche formats (children, the elderly...).
In Spain we organize this variety in basically two models that can directly refer to scheduling: 1. Diversified, General Appeal Radio - Radio generalista RNE, Cadena Ser, Onda Cero, Punto Radio...
2. Specialized radio - Radio especializada 2.1. Thematic Radio - Temática Interconomía, Radio María, Radio María, Radio Marca, Radio 3, Radio Clásica...
2.2. Formula (programming) - Radiofórmula Music - cadena 100, Kiss Fm, Cadena Dial, ¿M80, Los 40? News - Radio 5 Todo Noticias.
3. (Hybrid - Mixta: full service + playlists) Community, public service stations.
4)Types of stations The type of station usually conditions its format.
Station is categorized not so much by what it does as by ownerships and funding (direct result on the format & programming that a station can afford/offer).
Stations combine different forms of funding and supplement their income by all possible means, from profit-making events such as concerts, publishing and the sale of programmes (to the public as well as to other broadcasters), to the sale of T-shirts. But most important sources: advertising and public money (payfor-service radio).
We can say, following McLeish, that the main types of organization funding (and there radio stations) are: 1. Commercial stations.
Financed by national and local advertising or sponsorship, run as a company with shareholders (SER, Caracol).
2. Public service stations.
Funded by a license fee and run by a corporation (BBC, RAI).
Más en www.unybook.com gperez1783 Funded by $ from the annual budget or grant-in-aid, run by a publicly accountable board, independent from government (RNE; Latin America).
Paid by subscriptions, does not take advertising and is funded by individual subscribers and donors (little or no public aid is received; PBS in US).
3. Community stations.
Not-for-profit services, owned and managed by a particular community, usually through a trust, foundation or association.
IT is a form of public-service broadcasting, but it serves a community rather than the whole nation.
Funded by adverting, subscribers and donors.
(Red Estatal de Medios Comunitarios; AMARC).
4. Institutional stations Institutional ownership (university, church, hospital, factory radio), run and paid for by the organization for the benefit or its students, patients, employees, etc. (Radio La Colifata, Radio Complutense).
Sometimes is difficult to differentiate from community radios.
Types summarized in public service or commercial philosophy.
3.2. Types of radio stations and scheduling.
5)Scheduling a)Definition What's programming/scheduling? The program director works at establishing and maintaining air schedules: radio is as much about a succession or flow of programmes as it is about individual shows--> Distribution of programmes across...
The objective of scheduling is not merely to fill slots but to maintain continuity and consistency of sound.
The basis of a schedule that works is: -deciding the role and purpose of the station (what do I want to say, to whom and with what effect?).
-knowing the needs, likes and dislikes, habits, work patterns, and availability of the intended audience.
The radio day-main blocks: -The breakfast show: the flagship.
-Daytime shows: keeping company.
-Drive-time show: the bridge.
-Evening and overnight shows: quality audience.
Weekend shows: leisure time.
b) Aims and strategies Understand my listener's pattern, routine; reflect audience habits but also seek to manage them.
In any scheduling strategy, the guiding principle is to control audience flow and the short-term objective retain listeners.
Out/in flow, flowthrough.
Strategic planning: the future, being topical not enough.
c) The digital challenge (the case of podcasting) Podcasting as a new mass medium? Definition.
Combination of the words iPod and broadcasting. It's a service that allows Internet users to pull audio files (typically MP3s) from a website to listen to. Unlike Internet radio, don't have to 'tune in' to a particular broadcast; but download the podcast on demand or subscribe via an RSS feed, which automatically downloads the files.
Evolution: 1st and 2nd age of podcasting. Characterization: -2004-07, amateurs, experiments, geeks.
-2008, 12, professionalization but niche consumption and few returns.
Más en www.unybook.com -since 2012, commercially successful, massively consumed.
Innovations as revolution or evolution? Coexistence! (Bonini).
Spanish radio; Bonet's article: origins of Spanish Radio.
Private initiative 1924 under dictatorship (Primo de Rivera).
'PSB' founded 1937 (RNE, Salamanca).
FM was introduced in 1964.
Current structure of the market (national hertzian coverage): highly concentrated! PSB: RNE Group= Radio Nacional, Radio Clásica, R3, R5.
Public money (+advertising until 1993).