American Literature 25.04.2016 (2016)Apunte Inglés
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Ernest Hemingway is always dealing with the failure of the writer. The character says ‘I
wish I had’ all the time. He has wasted his potential. The character uses birth-death imagery.
West narration stands for death.
Typography is used to mean things: madness, disconnection...
Page 58 ‘The party’s over’, ‘He had just felt death come by again’ --> he knows he has wasted his potential, that he was dying. Death makes us equal.
Hemingway is a trickster, you have to read the ending a few times to understand it.
Harry is a frustrated character, after revising his life, Harry will die. There is no change in the paragraph to italics, it is not present time, it corresponds to Harry’s wishful thinking. Where does this actually happen? We don’t know. We know he dies because of the last paragraph.
There is no plane, the women are crying and the animals howling.
Why the leopard? Jeremiah 13:23. Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard his spots? They may ye also do good, that are accustomed to do evil so ye that are accustomed to do evil are unable to do good.
Impossibility of change. Pro-slaver literature used these quotations to assume that blacks in the US would never be anything but dehumanized creatures, their inferiority would not change.
Can this character who has wasted his life change? No Dante Alighieri, Inferno I, vv. 1-12>>. Dante defines: a leopard, a lion and a she-wolf referring to carnal sins.
LEOPARD: malicious or fraudulent sins, having spotted pelt, he can disguise himself from a potential creature of prey. Symbol of fraud.
LION: sins of violence and ambition.
SHE-WOLF: lust and adultery.
This leopard and its presence haunts the whole book. He tries to redeem himself. The main problem Harry has is the way he has betrayed himself.
‘East’ page 58: desperate attempt of re-birth, a new beginning. He becomes the new leopard. Christian imagery.
T.S. Eliot. ‘Lady, three white leopards sat under...’ 2 Timothy 2:16-18. Gangrene is also a biblical image. ‘And their word will eat as doth a canker: of whom is Hymenaeus and Philetus.
Harry is not brave enough to amputate this corruption.
Unybook: arodrigueslopez ‘False doctrine’: money, drinking, women... everything that has led him away from his creativity. His soul is dead. In his dream he tries to be this leopard.
Bartleby’s blindness: Harry’s gangrene.
I Corinthians 12-20 Ernest Hemingway cheats the reader by saying that we can all be the leopard. That death does not only affect him, but as an exemplum.
The Great Gatsby The self-made man is the most important image. There are three spaces. NY, WestEast, Valley of Ashes. He believes in the American Dream. Nick is the narrator, he is unreliable.
There are two possibilities to the story: either it is the story about the Great Gatsby or Nick’s growing up story.