2. LEXEME AND MORPHEME (2016)

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Universidad Universidad de Barcelona (UB)
Grado Estudios Ingleses - 3º curso
Asignatura Semantics
Año del apunte 2016
Páginas 2
Fecha de subida 12/03/2016
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Encuentra más apuntes en UnyBook.com - @aserrano LEXEME AND MORPHEME – 22/02/16 The lexeme Sometimes we come across with forms that belong to the same expression, or to different expressions.
For a word-form to belong to the same lexeme, they must have the same grammar category and the same semantic content. However, they have different MSF (different grammatical meaning/content).
BE (LEXEME): am, is, are, being, was, were, been (WORD-FORMS).
In English there are lots of homophones, which means that tokens of the same type belong to different lexemes (last, found (V-lexeme find) and found (V-lexeme found).
The morpheme The various components of a given word (a word consists of different morphemes). The smallest meaningful unit of grammar.
Free morpheme → those components of words that have independent existent. They don’t need to be attached to anything else in order to exist. Bases are free morphemes.
All word-forms, lexemes, tokens and types are bases. Free morphemes may consist of only one morph (car, tall, buy); they can be describe as monomorphemic. Or they can be called polymorphemic (cars, taller, buying) Bound morpheme → they need to be attached to something else (a free morpheme) in order to exist. The most common are prefixes and suffixes (affixes).
An allomorph is the various possible representation/realisations of a given morpheme.
Examples: - The negation in English might be realised by various prefixes (in-, im-, il-, ir-, un-, dis- -- intolerant, impolite, illiterate, uninteresting, disloyal) - [-s] for plural has different realisation as… /-s/, /-z/, /-iz/ (related to phonology) [-ed] for past/participle has different realisations as… /-t/, /-d/, /-id/ (related to phonology) Inflectional bound morphemes -> create word forms. It changes the MFS features.
-s for nouns / -er, -est for adjectives / -s, -ed, -ing for verbs Derivational bound morphemes -> create lexemes.
meaning of a word.
They contribute to the lexical Encuentra más apuntes en UnyBook.com - @aserrano BOUND INFLECTION - SUFFIXES - FUNCTION WORDS: - CLITICS (‘s) (articles, pronouns Prepositions, conjunctions) (GRAMMATICAL) DERIVATION (LEXICAL) FREE - AFFIXES (pre & suf) - OPEN-CLASS WORDS: - BOUND ROOTS (verbs, nouns, adjectives & adverbs) Not all the forms are really free. Conjunctions and and but, articles and prepositions are not usually said by themselves. On the other hand, certain pronouns like I he him could be used alones.
**Cranberry words → Units that have morphemes with no independent existence of their own.
Words that are only partially analysable. (cran –no existence- + berry –analysable-)   ...