Unit 4: Job analyses (2016)Apunte Inglés
Unit 4 human resources with merce mach ADE en inglés A6-B6
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Strategic importance of job analysis and competency modelling
Job analysis and competency modelling are systematic procedures that provide
the foundation for all HRM activities. Information about jobs & job requirements
is necessary for fair and effective HRM decision-making.
Facilitating radical change Jobs change when an organization undergoes a change due to new technologies, organizational redesign such as reengineering or job enrichment, and mergers and acquisitions. New HR policies and practices are needed for new jobs and competencies.
Job analysis and competency modelling within an integrated HRM system Using job analysis to accurately classify permanent employees and independent contractors Questions to be answered using Practical Guidelines Job Analysis Does the job description tell the An employer should not tell worker how to do the job, or indicate independent contractors how to do their jobs.
that a supervisor will tell the person how to do the job? Does the job description state that the Independent contractors should not work performed on the job is an be hired to perform essential tasks or essential part of the business? services.
Does the job description state that the An independent contractor should be worker must do the work him- or allowed to hire someone else to do herself? the work.
Does the job description specify the An independent contractor should be hours to be worked? allowed to determine the hours of work needed to complete the job.
Does the job description indicate that An independent contractor should not the worker is expected to work full- be prevented from doing work for time? other employers.
Does the job description specify that An independent contractor chooses the work is to be performed at the where to do the work.
company’s facilities? The HR triad: Partnership roles in job analysis and competency modelling Line managers With knowledge Employees Ensure that job Help line of strategic analysis managers business plans, information is up- recognize when work with HR to-date and that it major changes in managers to is used as the a job indicate the determine foundation for the need for job whether jobs organization’s analysis or need to be entire HRM reanalysis.
analysed or system.
HR professionals Provide accurate Serve as a job information for Participate in job analysis expert, the job analysis analysis through or help to select process.
an external questionnaires.
vendor to results for career Facilitate job conduct job planning and job incumbents’ analysis.
participation in managers and Understand the employees are relationship aware of legal among job considerations.
Prepare and other HR update job practices.
descriptions with Understand the line managers differences and employees.
between Use job analysis Ensure that line job analysis.
analysis and interviews and Keep up-to-date permanent on new employees and techniques and independent changing trends contractors.
in job analysis.
Specific terminology Position: Activities carried out by any single person.
Job: Positions that are functionally interchangeable Occupation: A group of jobs that involve similar work and requires similar competencies, training and credentials.
Standard occupational categories used by the Government Architecture & engineering Arts, design, entertainment, sports & media Building & grounds cleaning and maintenance Business & financial operations Community & social services Computer & mathematical Construction & extraction Education, training & library Farming, fishing & forestry Food preparation & service Health care practitioner & technical occupations Health care support Installation, maintenance & repair Legal Life-physical & social science Management Military Office & administrative support Personal care & service Production Protective services Sales & related occupations Transportation & material moving Specific terminology Job Analysis. A systematic process of describing & recording information about job behaviors, activities, & work specifications such as o Purposes of a job o Major duties or activities required of job holders o Conditions under which the job is performed o Competencies (i.e. skills, knowledge, abilities and other attributes) that enable and enhance performance in a job.
There are at least 15 job analysis approaches.
o Task-focused job analysis: It focuses on what the job involves like activities or outcomes.
o Worker-focused job analysis: It focuses on required characteristics of job incumbents. It also focuses on who can do the job. In fact, competency modelling is a worker-focused approach.
o Competency: A measurable pattern of knowledge, skill, abilities, behaviors & other characteristics that an individual needs to perform work roles or occupational functions successfully.
o Competency modelling: It is an approach to job analysis that emphasizes the individual characteristics needed for effective performance in terms of: Skills Abilities Interests Knowledge Values Personality Job descriptions are written documentation that should include: Job tittle Department/division Date job analysed Job summary Supervision Work performed Job context It uses To document the employment relationship To inform applicants To guide job behaviour To evaluate performance As guide for writing references & resumes Career paths Managing careers are group jobs into families based on similar competencies required, skills and value to the organization. Employees can see logical progression careers might take.
Sources of information Methods of collecting information Observations. Such as work sampling. It may be intrusive Individual and group interviews Questionnaires Standardized approaches to job analysis Time-and motion-studies. Identifies and measures a worker’s physical movements when performing tasks and then analysing the results to determine whether some motions can be eliminated or performed more efficiently. It is ideal for repetitive/routine tasks.
Ergonomic analysis. It aims to minimize stress and fatigue at work. It focuses on how job tasks affect physical movements & physiological responses.
Occupational Information Network (O*Net).
It provides a comprehensive database system for collecting, organizing, describing & disseminating data on job characteristics & worker attributes. It describes organizational and economic contexts such as labor market conditions or future occupational outlook. It also provides wealth of information at low cost.
Position analysis questionnaire (PAQ). It measures the work behaviors required by a job and relates them to worker characteristics. It assumes: o A relatively small set of work behaviors are common to all jobs o All jobs can be described in terms of how much they involve each of these behaviors.
Management position description questionnaire(MPDQ).
Is a standardized questionnaire for analysing the concerns, responsibilities, demands, restrictions & miscellaneous characteristics of managerial jobs.
It is used: o To develop selection procedures & performance appraisal forms o To determine the training needs of employees moving into managerial jobs.
Customized job analysis Customized task inventory is a listing of tasks, work behaviors, or worker characteristics (called items) that has been created specifically for the jobs or group of jobs being analyzed.
o The items in the inventory are unique to the jobs being studied.
o Employees are observed, interviewed, & asked to respond to questionnaires.
o Requires complex statistical analysis.
o Best used in organization where many people do the same job or occupation Developing a customized inventory 1. Generating items.
a. Workers are observed and interviewed b. Incumbents and superiors describe incidents illustrating effective or ineffective performance such as: i. What led up to the incidents? ii. What were the consequences of the behaviour? iii. Was the behaviour under the incumbent’s control? 2. Creating a questionnaire. Job analyst writes task statements that are used to create the job analysis questionnaire.
3. Analysing & interpreting data. Ratings from questionnaires are arithmetically combined to create a description of the qualifying work behaviors of the job.
a. Positive results are vivid and detailed b. Negative development & analysis are complex and time consuming.
Analysing needed competencies Standardized approach. Many consulting firms that perform job analysis collect competency information using fairly standardized procedures.
Consulting firms have standard taxonomies. The Personality-Related Position Requirements Form (PPRF) is designed to measure the importance of 12 personality characteristics for job performance.
Customized approach. Subject matter experts (incumbents, supervisors) identify competencies, rate the competencies, and complete the questionnaire.
Competency inventories Competency inventory. A detailed file maintained for each employee that documents a person’s competencies including employees scores from standard instruments and general information such as level of education, job tittle, performance history, etc.
Current issues: Decline of job analysis? Trends inconsistent with traditional job analysis: o Increased job sharing o Decreased job specialization o Work teams Why is job analysis needed? o Legal compliance o To support strategic change o To build integrated HRM systems Competency-based approaches may be more relevant today!! Current issues: From “my job” to “my role” Flexibility. From job analysis to role analysis that emphasizes results over procedures.
Teamwork. In team-based cultures, competency modelling helps in identifying core competencies and behaviors that are similar across all jobs.