Teaching guide 1 (2016)Ejercicio Inglés
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Teaching guide 1.
María Llanos Teaching guide 1: The origin of European nations.
A. Multiple choice.
1) c) Clovis 2) b) Visigoth Reccared 3) a) The Visigoths.
4) d) The Lombards 5) a) Visigothic Kings 6) d) The Visigoths 7) c) The Breviary of Alaric 8) c) Lenin.
9) c) 13th century 10) d) Gerona B. Concrete questions.
1.- Because churches represented Roman population and they were profoundly influenced by the Roman political and legal model and the way to sustain the Roman model of government.
2.- Catholicism believed in Virgin Mary and in the coeternity of Jesus Christ with God the Father, whereas Arianism denied that Jesus Christ was coeternal with God the Father, and both Catholicism and Arianism are branches of Christianism.
4.- In the fourth century, after de Council of Elvira.
5.- Because it was more simple than Christianism, and the Germanic peoples had little culture and capacity for advanced abstraction.
6.- the kings converted to Catholicism and the Church came to support royalty in exchange for the kings’ endorsement and defence of this religious organization.
7.- Kings were treated as vicars of God on earth, and they were subordinated to the Church, so at the end the kingdom would be under God and his Church.
8.- It was a ceremony where the king was anointed by the Church, conferring him a sacred and inviolable character, and making him subject to the Church’s authority. So the Church would be above the king.
9.- Catholicism, once it was declared the official religion of the Roman Empire, became the guardian of the Roman idea of political organization.
10.- It can be seen as a reinforcement as long as this gave the kings a sacred character and a legitimacy that could seem as emanating from God and his Church. However, it was a limit as it subordinated the king to the Church and its willing.
Teaching guide 1.
María Llanos 11.- Maybe because they were settled by multiple peoples (Romans, Byzantines, Suebi, etc.), and because both were more deeply influenced by Roman habits, manners and culture.
12.- In the XIX century, because of the influence of Romanticism and Nationalism at that time and as a consequence of the American and French Revolutions. In the XX century Nationalism was used to claim independence and implies that people is easily distinguished, as if we all were different races, and the only ones similar to us were those of our same nation.
13.- Because those laws could only be applied to the Germanic people living in that territory, and not to the Roman people living there, which were also part of the Germanic kingdom.
14.- The territorial state appears once Germanic and Roman people are mixed, so these categories do not apply anymore, and all the people within a given territory have to fulfil the same laws, regardless of their origin. With the principle of personality happens the other way around; each nation or group applies its laws to its people, notwithstanding their precise geographical location.
15.- The meaning according to them is a “body of citizens whose collective sovereignty constituted them into a state which was their political expression”.
16.- The principle of nationalities means that every person belongs to a nation, and that any nation has the right to subdue any other, so every nation has the right to self-determination.
17.- In Medieval times the term “nation” was used to designate a group of people coming from the same region or province and speaking the same language, so they used to gather when they were in a foreign territory.
Ulfilas. He translated the Bible into the Gothic dialect to spread Christianity among his people, creating the oldest text written in a Germanic language. However, he was adhered to Arianism, not to Catholicism.
Arianism. It is a nontrinitarian belief created between the third and fourth centuries. It asserts that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, created by it, but that they are not coeternal, so Jesus Christ is subordinated to the Father.
Catholicism. The word comes from the Greek and means “universal doctrine”. Created in the fourth century, it refers to the beliefs and practices of various groups of Christians sharing beliefs, practices and governance structures.
Anointment of kings. It was a ceremony where the elected king was anointed by the Church, thus conferring him a sacred and inviolable character. By becoming a Christian King, he was made subject to the Church’s authority, and a vicar of God. It implied the royal obedience to bishops.
National Germanic Law. Each Germanic nation had its own national law that was to be applied to the people of that nation, and not to the Romans living under their control. Then, having a national law became a significant element in the forging of any acknowledged political unit in the West.
Germanic territorial states. The states resulting from the process of mixing between Germans and Romans that at the end formed a single body of citizens. At that point, the law could be Teaching guide 1.
María Llanos applied to all the people in a given territory regardless of personal origins and group affiliations.
Councils of Toledo. Mixed assemblies in which the members of the Visigothic nobility served together with the bishops, and which adopted rules essential to the organization of the kingdom. They were typical from Visigothic Spain. Of special importance was the Fourth Council of Toledo, when an elective procedure to designate the king was approved.
Codex euricianus. It was formed before 484 by the Visigoths, and was the first of the National Germanic Laws, compiled at the order of Euric, King of the Visigoths. The customs of the Visigothic nation were recognised and affirmed.
Lex Romana Visigothorum. It was issued in 506 by the Visigothic king Alaric II and regarded as the official law code up to the year 654, when it was replaced by the Liber ludiciorum. It was the law that Visigoth kings applied to the Roman subjects living in their territory.
Liber ludiciorum. Also known as the Lex Visigothorum. It is a compilation of national Visigothic laws with territorial validity, that is, binding throughout the Kingdom of Toledo upon all the subjects of the Visigothic king, regardless of their origin (Germanic or Roman).
Lex Salica. It was one of the National Germanic Laws of the Franks, along with the Lex Ripuaria. It was compiled around 500 AD by the first Frankish King, Clovis. It remained the basis of Frankish law throughout the early medieval period and has influenced the European legal systems.
Aethelbert Code. It was written around the seventh century and is the first Germanic-language law code. It is a set of legal provisions written in old English, being one of the earliest examples of a document written in English.
Principle of personality of the law. Each nation or group applies its laws to its people notwithstanding their precise geographical location. It is the opposite of the territorial system.
Territorial law. In this system, the law is applied in a uniform manner throughout a given territory regardless of the personal origins or group affiliations of the people inhabiting that territory.
Anglosaxon Heptarchy. Anglo-Saxon England was divided, thanks to the Church, in seven autonomous kingdoms: the Wessex, East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria (divided in two subkingdoms: Bernicia and Deira); Kent, Sussex and Essex.
Consuls (medieval merchants). They were the authorities that each nation (group of European merchants that lived in a certain district) created in order to form their own merchant courts to solve commercial disputes without the intervention of the official justice system.
Collège des Quatre nations. It was created in 1661 by Cardinal Mazarin with the aim to educate, free of charge, 60 nobles hailing from four regions newly integrated into France by virtue of the Treaties of Westphalia (1648), specifically students from the regions of Artois, Alsace, Pinerolo, Roussillon and Sardinia. It was a measure to integrate the elite of these previously foreign territories into the kingdom of France.
Wilson’s Fourteen points. It was the speech Woodrow Wilson, president of the United States of America, gave to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. They were principles for world peace that were to be used in the peace negotiations after the World War I. The Teaching guide 1.
María Llanos declaration consisted of fourteen points, which usually are divided in three issues: diplomatic, territorial, and the creation of the League of Nations.
Principle of nationalities. Every person belongs to a nation, and every nation has the right to be free, that is, the right to self-determination. People have the right to decide whether they want to remain subdued by a foreign power or whether they want to be independent and decide their fate. People have the right to choose.
Nationalism. It first appeared in the XIX century with the Romanticism movement and following the American and French Revolutions. At that time, it was defined as a “body of citizens whose collective sovereignty constituted them into a state which was their political expression”. Now, it has become an ideological movement to some independent parties.
However, we have to take into account George Orwell’s definition, reducing nationalism to a desire for power and prestige, to something that instead of uniting people, divides them.
D. General questions.
1.- As the Church was the one representing the whole of the predominantly Roman population, the Germanic kings needed their support in order to create a unified kingdom.
Besides, Christianity had flourished relatively quickly amongst the Germanic peoples, so the kings decided to embrace Catholicism, being the first one the Frankish King Clovis. Then the other Germanic kings followed the path, and step by step the Church gained influence and power. The Church also tried to preserve the Roman idea of political organization, which also influenced the formation of the Germanic Kingdoms.
In Visigothic Spain, its power was so high, that it served together with the Visigothic nobility, and then it acquired the power of anointing the kings, so the consent of the Church was crucial in order to name a new king. Furthermore, by doing do, the king accepted to be under the Church’s authority. The last Germanic kings to be anointed would be the Franks.
2.- A lot of territories and states still bear the name of the Germanic people that inhabited it.
The main examples are France, which was inhabited by the Franks; Germany, which preserves the name of the Alamanni in other languages as French or Spanish; England, where the Angles used to live; Burgundy; Bavaria; and the Lombardy. However, other names as those of Italy and Spain, retain the Roman influence. In both cases, the geographical denominations prevailed, as they had been inhabited by multiple peoples that had given them a similar name.
3.- First there were two separate groups in each German nation: the Germanic invaders and the Roman population, which was the majority. So the German National Laws appeared in order to rule over the Germanic population, leaving to the Romans other laws. However, as time evolved, both groups started to mix, so at the end there was no difference between both groups and the territorial laws appeared, ruling over all the people within a determined territory regardless of their origin.
4.- Although the origin of the term “nation” can be situated in the Middle Ages, especially in the 13th century with the appearance of the nations in the universities and commerce, it cannot be said that the Germanic Kingdoms are the origin of the actual European nations. First of all, because we cannot talk about of nations in this period as we understand them today (“body of citizens whose collective sovereignty constituted them into a state which was their political expression”). Besides, nowadays the concept of nation and nationalism is deeply related with that of self-determination, which did not exist back in the Middle Ages.
Teaching guide 1.
María Llanos Nationalism was born in the 18th and 19th centuries, after the American and French revolutions, so it makes no sense to talk about nationalism in the period we are studying.
Furthermore, much of the German “nations” do not correspond with our current nations, as can be the case of Catalonia, or even Spain, as the Visigoths were both in Spain and part of France. It has also to be noted, that German “nations” were also forming themselves, mixing with the Romans and creating a new people. So, in my opinion, the Germanic Kingdoms are not the origin of the actual European nations.
5.- The first meaning of nation throughout history is that used in the 13th century in the universities, and which referred to a group of students from the same region or province who spoke the same language and who gathered to defend themselves from the local authorities. It also was used at that time to refer to the areas settled by merchants from the same region or kingdom, whose function was to defend the interests of their “nationals”.
Then, after the American and French Revolutions, a nation was defined as a “body of citizens whose collective sovereignty constituted them into a state which was their political expression”. This meaning of the term has persisted, and was “intensified” by the “principle of nationalities” of President Woodrow Wilson.
6.- They pervert history because they assume that the peoples of Europe are distinct, stable and objectively identifiable social cultural units and that, after they were created in the Middle Ages, they have not changed, which cannot be true, as culture is in constant movement.
Besides, ethnic claims demand the political autonomy of all persons belonging to a particular ethnic group and their right to govern their historic territory, regardless of who inhabits it now and how long he has been inhabiting it. So they promote an unfair and false history, that does not take into account other people and the continuous change that culture and us, as human beings, are suffering.
7.- According to George Orwell, patriotism means devotion to a particular place and a particular way of life, which one believes to be the best in the world but has no wish to force on other people. It is by nature defensive, so there is no willing to impose it on other people, not even on your nationals. However, nationalism is inseparable from the desire for power and prestige, maybe for the nation, but always an individual has to lead the way. So we have that a nationalist will try to convince his nationals to take a separatist way, claiming things that may not be true. That is something that a patriot would never do. A patriot feels good as long as his identity is respected and valued, while a nationalist always wants more privileges.