Anglès criminològic treball (2014)

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Universidad Universidad de Barcelona (UB)
Grado Criminología - 1º curso
Asignatura Anglès Criminològic
Año del apunte 2014
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Fecha de subida 21/07/2017
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CRIMINOLOGY ENGLISH Prof. VIRGINIA GARCÍA ORTIZ FINAL PROJECT VIOLENCE, JURY AND INVESTIGATION PROCESS Paula Serra Ferré NIUB: 16704844 DNI : 47958415-B GRUP : T1 Ç Ç Questions choiced: 1. Describe the purpose of the jury selection process.
2. Define and explain the concept of instrumental violence.
3. Define and explain the concept of expressive violence.
4. Define and explain the stages and components of a criminal profile and /or investigation.
1.Describe the purpose of the jury selection process.
The normative process specified by the plan consists of seven steps: The firt step is the Applicability, that is to say, population to which is applied the selection. The second step is the management and supervision of jury selection process, under judicial supervision. The clerk of court is responsible for managing this process, he may authorize and instruct that ‘’the names of all jurors selected for ultimate drawing to grand or petit juror panel shall be chosen at random’’. The third step is Random selection from voting list, this is prepared annually by the registrars,writting the names of persons to be considered for service as jurors. Also it is necessary the master jury wheel as a fourth step, doing an alphabetically arranged file cards and numerically ordered file. Drawing names from the master wheel is the next step and finally the qualifications (in which step they need to determine if a person is unqualified for exempt, or to be excused from jury service) and the qualified jury wheel as the last step.
-Alker, Hayward ; Hosticka, Carl ; Mitchell, Michael-Jury Selection as a biased social process; Law and Society Review, Fall 1976, Vol.11(1), p.9 For example, in this situation: The judicial district has 1,000 census tracts and 1.000,000 eligible potential jurors in the jurisdiction. When 1,000 jurors are to be assembled for jury duty, each juror has a 1,000/1,000,000 or a .001 chance of selec- tion. This can be modeled by first choosing 500 census tracts identified by random selection (the first stage). Each census tract has approximately two eligible jurors to be selected because of random selection of the tract. Consider a census tract containing 1,000 eligible potential jurors. The tract has a probability of selection equal to: 500 (tracts identified by random selection) X 1,000 (eligible jurors in the tract) --------------------------------------1,000,000 (eligible jurors in the district) =.5.
If this tract is represented, each eligible potential juror has a second-stage probability of selection equal to: 2 (to be selected in the tract) ---------------------------------------------1,000 (eligible potential jurors in the tract) =.002 -HiroshiFukuraiEdgar W.ButlerRichardKrooth Hiroshi- Cross-sectional jury representation or systematic jury representation? Simple random and cluster sampling strategies in jury selection; Journal of Criminal Justice; 1991, Vol. 19, Iss. 1, pp. 31-48 The jury is examined through a set of questions weighted with a percentage of success that will determine if they are qualified, one of them is: -When the defendant does not testify in his or her own behalf: a)he or she loses the presumption of innocence 6.4% b)he or she may be considered guilty of the offense 7.0% c)he or she is exercising a right to remain silent 85.6% d)other incorrect answer given 1.0% -RichardSeltzerMark A.VenutiGrace M.Lopes Richard; Juror honesty during the voir dire; Journal of Criminal Justice;; 1991, Vol. 19, Iss. 5, pp. 451-462 Article 1: -Alker, Hayward ; Hosticka, Carl ; Mitchell, Michael; Law and Society Review, Fall 1976, Vol.11(1), pp.9 <http://mlplus.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com.sire.ub.edu/primo_library/libweb/action/sear ch.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&indx=11&dscnt=0&frbg=&scp.scps=primo_central_mul tiple_fe&tab=default_tab&dstmp=1433452248824&srt=rank&ct=search&mode=Basic &&dum=true&indx=1&vl%28freeText0%29=jury%20selection%20process.%20&fn=sea rch&vid=34CBUC_UB_V1 > [consult: 01 of June,2015] Article 2: -HiroshiFukuraiEdgar W.ButlerRichardKrooth Hiroshi- Cross-sectional jury representation or systematic jury representation? Simple random and cluster sampling strategies in jury selection. Journal of Criminal Justice ; 1991, Vol. 19, Iss. 1, p. 31-48 <http://mlplus.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com.sire.ub.edu/primo_library/libweb/action/sear ch.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=default_tab&indx= 21&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=34CBUC_UB_V1&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=process+ju ry+selection&scp.scps=CBU53268%2C> [consult: 2 of June, 2015] Article 3: -RichardSeltzerMark A.VenutiGrace M.Lopes Richard; Juror honesty during the voir dire. Journal of Criminal Justice; Seltzer 1991, Vol. 19, Iss. 5, pp. 451-462 <http://mlplus.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com.sire.ub.edu/primo_library/libweb/action/sear ch.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=default_tab&indx= 11&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=34CBUC_UB_V1&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=voir+dire& scp.scps=CBU53268%2C > [consult: 03 of June, 2015] 2. Define and explain the concept of instrumental violence.
The instrumental violence is that whose aggressor behaves thoughtfully and peacefully to obtain the personal benefit. It is characterized by this rational process where it is placed in a more value the instrumental object which makes that his behaviour reconciled according to his rational and value norms. (Fontaine, 2007).
The instrumental aggressor is more thoughtful, planned and based more consciously in the active decision making, he can plan and debate the execution of his antisocial behaviour.
Reid Griffith Fontaine-Social information processing, subtypes of violence, and a progressive construction of culpability and punishment in juvenile justice. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry ,Vol.31, 2008, 136-149.
Blair (2005), Howells (2009) and Raine (2013) demostrated empirically an association between the instrumental aggression and the psychopathy. Because the coldness and the calculation of the instrumental violence is correlated and it is possible to associate with the psychopathy.
Hanna Pickard - Choice, deliberation, violence : Mental capacity and criminal responsibility in personality disorder. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry , Vol.40, 2015, 15-24. Also explained in Fontaine article by Cornell (1996).
To tell that the instrumental violence is, Gary Becker extended his formulation of simple awaited utility, where he was saying that the conviction or punishment of being condemned would lead to a dissuasion of the crime in question, but that it had to extend to bear in mind the phenomenon of the instrumental violence where Becker examines the relations between the violence and the attitude, because this one is very different in the instrumental aggressors.
Gideon Yanis- Crime and Punishment: a note on instrumental violence. Journal of behavioural economics, Vol.17, 1998, 143-148.
Article 1: - Reid Griffith Fontaine-Social information processing, subtypes of violence, and a progressive construction of culpability and punishment in juvenile justice. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry ,Vol.31, 2008, 136-149. < http://ac.elscdn.com.sire.ub.edu/S0160252708000186/1-s2.0-S0160252708000186main.pdf?_tid=769d1976-0b9c-11e5-8dba00000aacb360&acdnat=1433520413_6e865dfe8afcb59c6a653728beffb26b> [Consult: 30th of May, 2015] Article 2: -Hanna Pickard - Choice, deliberation, violence : Mental capacity and criminal responsibility in personality disorder. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry , Vol.40, 2015, 15-24 < http://ac.els-cdn.com.sire.ub.edu/S0160252715000722/1-s2.0S0160252715000722-main.pdf?_tid=9fbd16bc-0ba1-11e5-a95200000aacb362&acdnat=1433522630_d4f142584d78ce4ba01e46cb242ce9fb> [Consult: 30 of May, 2015].
Article 3: - Gideon Yanis- Crime and Punishment: a note on instrumental violence. Journal of behavioural economics, Vol.17, 1998, 143-148. < http://ac.elscdn.com.sire.ub.edu/0090572088900058/1-s2.0-0090572088900058main.pdf?_tid=96c9d4da-0c4d-11e5-b05200000aab0f26&acdnat=1433596488_860e72ec23022140ce12c1cd8e472671> [Consult: 30 of May, 2015] 3. Define and explain the concept of expressive violence.
Expressive violence is characterized as impulsive, emotional retaliation toward a perceived threat or injustice. In particular, social cognitive differences between instrumental and the expressive violence have implications for responsibility, length and structure of incarceration, rehabilitation, and other issues that are central to a progressive theory of juvenile culpability and punishment.
-Babcock, Julia C. ; Tharp, Andra L.T. ; Sharp, Carla ; Heppner, Whitney ; Stanford, Matthew S.- Similarities and differences in impulsive/premeditated and reactive/proactive bimodal classifications of aggression ; Aggression and Violent Behavior, 2014, Vol.19(3), pp.251-262 Expressive violence was defined as violence in reaction to a dispute or interpersonal conflict (that is to say, “push” to behaviour). Typical example of reactive violence included violence stemming from an argument with an estranged spouse or a dispute with acquaintances.
-Retz, W ; Rosler, M- Violent behaviour for punishable act ADHD: Association with reactive, but not proactive violence; Nervenarzt, 2007 Nov, Vol.78 Suppl 2, pp.206-206 Expressive inhibition is associated with a range of undesirable outcomes in the general population including attenuation of positive emotion, greater experience of negative emotion, impaired self-esteem, poor interpersonal functioning, and lower overall wellbeing. Negative emotion as “bad” or “unacceptable” may motivate nonspecific suppression among individuals with heterogeneous mood and anxiety pathology.
-Joshua D.ClappJudiann M.JonesMaryanneJaconisShira A.OlsenMatthew J.WoodwardJ.
GayleBeck Joshua D., Clapp ; Journal of Anxiety Disorders; Vol. 28, Iss. 2, pp. 230-236.
Article 1: -Joshua D.ClappJudiann M.JonesMaryanneJaconisShira A.OlsenMatthew J.WoodwardJ.
GayleBeck Joshua D., Clapp ; Journal of Anxiety Disorders;Vol. 28, Iss. 2, pp. 230-236 <http://mlplus.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com.sire.ub.edu/primo_library/libweb/action/sear ch.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=default_tab&indx= 21&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=34CBUC_UB_V1&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=+expressiv e+violence&scp.scps=CBU53268%2C> [consult: 01 of June 2015] Article 2: -Babcock, Julia C. ; Tharp, Andra L.T. ; Sharp, Carla ; Heppner, Whitney ; Stanford, Matthew S.- Similarities and differences in impulsive/premeditated and reactive/proactive bimodal classifications of aggression ; Aggression and Violent Behavior, 2014, Vol.19(3), pp.251-262 <http://mlplus.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com.sire.ub.edu/primo_library/libweb/action/sear ch.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=default_tab&indx= 1&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=34CBUC_UB_V1&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=reactive+vio lence&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe> [consult: 02 of June 2015] Article 3: -Joshua D.ClappJudiann M.JonesMaryanneJaconisShira A.OlsenMatthew J.WoodwardJ.
GayleBeck Joshua D., Clapp ; Journal of Anxiety Disorders; Vol. 28, Iss. 2, pp. 230-236 <http://mlplus.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com.sire.ub.edu/primo_library/libweb/action/sear ch.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=default_tab&indx= 1&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=34CBUC_UB_V1&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=reactive+vio lence&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe> [consult: 03 of June 2015] 4. Define and explain the stages and components of a criminal .profile and /or investigation.
In criminal profiling are applied seven stages, the first stage are investigate profiling inputs in which all evidence related to the victim, crime scene or other sources collected. The second stage is crime assessment in which all inputs are evaluated. In the third stage, crime classification, the criminal is classified under one of three following categories; organized criminal, disorganized criminal and mixed type if the criminal cannot be categorized under one of the previous two categories. In the fourth step, reconstruction of crime, the scene of the crime is constructed from the beginning to the end. After the crime scene is formed, the criminal is profiled in the fifth step called criminal profiling (based on the criminal profile). In the sixth step called investigation, the suspects are gathered and their testimonies are taken. In the last step which is named apprehension, after necessary trials, the criminal is sentenced and sent to prison (Douglas, Ressler, Burgess and Hartman, 1986). Fatih Ayadin, Ozlem Dirilen- Gumus – Development of a criminal profiling instrument. Social and behavioural sciences, 2011, 2612-2616.
It seems evident that, in many criminal cases that were not optimally investigated, the crucial faults were made at the very beginning of the investigation, often at the crime scene itself. Most other, subsequent stages of a criminal procedure can be reviewed, repeated and also corrected if necessary. However, in crime scene work, each piece of evidence that is initially neglected may be lost forever. Considering this pivotal position in a legal procedure, the question of how optimum performance in the initial stage of an investigation can be assured seems fundamental. Hans Ditrich – Cognitive fallacies and criminal investigations. Science and Justice, vol.55, 2015, 155-159.
An important distinction should be drawn between criminal investigation, which presumptively shares many of the assumptions and methods of modern scientific inquiry, and ‘law’, which supposedly not does. For example, criminal investigations (like Law but unlike idealised Science) focus on particular cases, follow formal rules and procedures, and seek prompt and final resolutions to allegations or suspicions of criminal wrongdoing. Paul Robert- Renegotiating forensic cultures: Between law, science and criminal justice. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical sciences, vol.44, 2013, 47-59.
Article 1: -Fatih Ayadin, Ozlem Dirilen- Gumus – Development of a criminal profiling instrument.
Social and behavioural sciences, 2011, 2612-2616. < http://ac.elscdn.com.sire.ub.edu/S187704281102338X/1-s2.0-S187704281102338Xmain.pdf?_tid=0b07dae0-0c53-11e5-8d6300000aab0f6b&acdnat=1433598831_9871992dfacdea481d638726b3f8ec07 > [Consult: 06 of June, 2015] Article 2: -Hans Ditrich – Cognitive fallacies and criminal investigations. Science and Justice, vol.55, 2015, 155-159. < http://ac.els-cdn.com.sire.ub.edu/S1355030614001725/1s2.0-S1355030614001725-main.pdf?_tid=b0e48c8e-0c5c-11e5-8bd500000aab0f6c&acdnat=1433602974_3401021e11b6c212f15a7e8e15671022 > [ Consult : 06 of June, 2015] Article 3: -Paul Robert- Renegotiating forensic cultures: Between law, science and criminal justice. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical sciences, vol.44, 2013, 47-59. < http://ac.els-cdn.com.sire.ub.edu/S1369848612001045/1-s2.0S1369848612001045-main.pdf?_tid=305e2ca6-0c6a-11e5-8bd500000aab0f6c&acdnat=1433608772_5dd8843945ae24e13c8ace1eccbb5c71 > [Consult: 06 of June, 2015].
BIBLIOGRAPHY -Alker, Hayward ; Hosticka, Carl ; Mitchell, Michael; Law and Society Review, Fall 1976, Vol.11(1), p.9 <http://mlplus.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com.sire.ub.edu/primo_library/libweb/action/sear ch.do?ct=Next+Page&pag=nxt&indx=11&dscnt=0&frbg=&scp.scps=primo_central_mul tiple_fe&tab=default_tab&dstmp=1433452248824&srt=rank&ct=search&mode=Basic &&dum=true&indx=1&vl%28freeText0%29=jury%20selection%20process.%20&fn=sea rch&vid=34CBUC_UB_V1 > [consult: 1 june 2015] -HiroshiFukuraiEdgar W.ButlerRichardKrooth Hiroshi- Cross-sectional jury representation or systematic jury representation? Simple random and cluster sampling strategies in jury selection. Journal of Criminal Justice ; 199, Vol. 19, Iss. 1, pp. 31-48 <http://mlplus.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com.sire.ub.edu/primo_library/libweb/action/sear ch.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=default_tab&indx= 21&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=34CBUC_UB_V1&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=process+ju ry+selection&scp.scps=CBU53268%2C> [consulta: 2 de june de 2015] -RichardSeltzerMark A.VenutiGrace M.Lopes Richard; Juror honesty during the voir dire Journal of Criminal Justice;; Seltzer 1991, Vol. 19, Iss. 5, pp. 451-462 <http://mlplus.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com.sire.ub.edu/primo_library/libweb/action/sear ch.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=default_tab&indx= 11&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=34CBUC_UB_V1&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=voir+dire& scp.scps=CBU53268%2C > [consult: 3 june de 2015] - Reid Griffith Fontaine-Social information processing, subtypes of violence, and a progressive construction of culpability and punishment in juvenile justice. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry ,Vol.31, 2008, 136-149. < http://ac.elscdn.com.sire.ub.edu/S0160252708000186/1-s2.0-S0160252708000186main.pdf?_tid=769d1976-0b9c-11e5-8dba00000aacb360&acdnat=1433520413_6e865dfe8afcb59c6a653728beffb26b> [Consult: 30th of May, 2015] -Hanna Pickard - Choice, deliberation, violence : Mental capacity and criminal responsibility in personality disorder. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry , Vol.40, 2015, 15-24 < http://ac.els-cdn.com.sire.ub.edu/S0160252715000722/1-s2.0S0160252715000722-main.pdf?_tid=9fbd16bc-0ba1-11e5-a95200000aacb362&acdnat=1433522630_d4f142584d78ce4ba01e46cb242ce9fb> [Consult: 30 of May, 2015].
- Gideon Yanis- Crime and Punishment: a note on instrumental violence. Journal of behavioural economics, Vol.17, 1998, 143-148. < http://ac.elscdn.com.sire.ub.edu/0090572088900058/1-s2.0-0090572088900058main.pdf?_tid=96c9d4da-0c4d-11e5-b05200000aab0f26&acdnat=1433596488_860e72ec23022140ce12c1cd8e472671> [Consult: 30 of May, 2015] -Joshua D.ClappJudiann M.JonesMaryanneJaconisShira A.OlsenMatthew J.WoodwardJ.
GayleBeck Joshua D., Clapp ; Journal of Anxiety Disorders;Vol. 28, Iss. 2, pp. 230-236 <http://mlplus.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com.sire.ub.edu/primo_library/libweb/action/sear ch.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=default_tab&indx= 21&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=34CBUC_UB_V1&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=+expressiv e+violence&scp.scps=CBU53268%2C> [consult: 1 june 2015] -Babcock, Julia C. ; Tharp, Andra L.T. ; Sharp, Carla ; Heppner, Whitney ; Stanford, Matthew S.- Similarities and differences in impulsive/premeditated and reactive/proactive bimodal classifications of aggression ; Aggression and Violent Behavior, 2014, Vol.19(3), pp.251-262 <http://mlplus.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com.sire.ub.edu/primo_library/libweb/action/sear ch.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=default_tab&indx= 1&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=34CBUC_UB_V1&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=reactive+vio lence&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe> [consult: 2 june 2015] -Joshua D.ClappJudiann M.JonesMaryanneJaconisShira A.OlsenMatthew J.WoodwardJ.
GayleBeck Joshua D., Clapp ; Journal of Anxiety Disorders; Vol. 28, Iss. 2, pp. 230-236 <http://mlplus.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com.sire.ub.edu/primo_library/libweb/action/sear ch.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=default_tab&indx= 1&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=34CBUC_UB_V1&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=reactive+vio lence&scp.scps=primo_central_multiple_fe> [consult: 3 june 2015].
-Fatih Ayadin, Ozlem Dirilen- Gumus – Development of a criminal profiling instrument.
Social and behavioural sciences, 2011, 2612-2616. < http://ac.elscdn.com.sire.ub.edu/S187704281102338X/1-s2.0-S187704281102338Xmain.pdf?_tid=0b07dae0-0c53-11e5-8d6300000aab0f6b&acdnat=1433598831_9871992dfacdea481d638726b3f8ec07 > [Consult: 06 of June, 2015] -Hans Ditrich – Cognitive fallacies and criminal investigations. Science and Justice, vol.55, 2015, 155-159. < http://ac.els-cdn.com.sire.ub.edu/S1355030614001725/1s2.0-S1355030614001725-main.pdf?_tid=b0e48c8e-0c5c-11e5-8bd500000aab0f6c&acdnat=1433602974_3401021e11b6c212f15a7e8e15671022 > [ Consult : 06 of June, 2015] -Paul Robert- Renegotiating forensic cultures: Between law, science and criminal justice. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical sciences, vol.44, 2013, 47-59. < http://ac.els-cdn.com.sire.ub.edu/S1369848612001045/1-s2.0S1369848612001045-main.pdf?_tid=305e2ca6-0c6a-11e5-8bd500000aab0f6c&acdnat=1433608772_5dd8843945ae24e13c8ace1eccbb5c71 > [Consult: 06 of June, 2015].
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